Wednesday, October 30, 2019
How effectively does Congress use its powers over foreign policy - Essay Example The inaction is due to change in the working culture of Congress where there is no strong verification and deliberation of policies. The authority to implement legislative power is not being fully utilised to make effective decisions. The Iraq War is considered as a slip because the Congress could not access relevant information on time. The Congress can boast of a glorious past when it could take action against the Vietnam war in association with the judiciary and the media. There are opportunities when the Congress can regain its stance to keep a check on foreign policies and reinstate its power as the legislative authority of the United States. One of the main powers of the Congress is oversight. The objective of Congressional oversight is to restrict the happening of mistakes or to contain events from becoming out of control. It is also to make sure that the legislations passed by the Congress are faithfully executed. The Congress verifies military decisions and maintains diplomacy in its activities. The power of the Congress includes the formulation of lessons from past catastrophes to avoid the recurrence of such events. A good congressional oversight reduces waste, keeps policymakers on toes, punishes scandal or fraud, scrutinises an agency or departments, its personnel and the implements longstanding foreign policies. The investigation of probable scandals usually turns out to be an exercise that moves from significant policy issues to a matter of publicity (Ornstein, N.J. & Mann,T.E. 2006 p.67). Tough congressional oversight is a contentious and messy process irrespective of who controls the Congress and the White Ho use. However, the process prevents errors from transforming into disasters and enables the administration to be more sensitive in their inactions and actions. From the year 2000 Ã¢â¬â 2006, congressional oversight of executives has
Depend on business plans you analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1
Depend on business plans you analysis - Essay Example Scottish Enterprise Business plan and the AMREF Business plan are the two online sources that were obtained. The AMREF Business plan was written for the period between October 2011 and September 2014 while the Scottish Enterprise was written for the period between 2012 and 2015. The outline given in class is different from the two online documents that I obtained. The financial analysis is the only similar element in the business plans of the textbook, and the two online sources. However, there are varied differences with the Scottish Enterprise and AMREF business plans. The business plan by the Scottish Enterprise business plan has the Chairman and chief executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s foreword. It also contains the economic challenges facing the company and the globally competitive companies, sectors and business environment. A financial summary, performance evaluation and delivering a low carbon economy are contained in the document. This plan focuses the long-term goals of the company while a ddressing the immediate challenges the company faces in the current economic times On the other hand, AMREF has an executive summary that has a description of the companies plan. An introduction, values, and mission of the company follow the executive summary. The strategic fundraising, strategic directions, partnership descriptions, management of the business planning process, monitoring, evaluation and costing are the elements in the plan. The style used in business plan writing is the official recommended style of writing. In the two online sources, they capture background information about the company. It also contains the business details of the company, products, and services, and financial analysis of the company. The two plans were written using first pronoun with no references cited. A solid business plan must be written in first-person, in official format, and in cases where information is outsourced, it should be well referenced. The details of a business plan are critica l. The presentation of the business plan should be considered. It should be flawless, well organized, and arranged in a systematic way. If the plan is to be submitted to a group of donors or investors interested in a company, the plan should be convincing (Pinson, 20). This means that it should have a title page with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name, current date and the implementation period of the plan. The content in a business plan will always vary. The executive summary follows the title page (DeThomas, 11). It should contain the basic business of the company, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s immediate and forecasted success. It should also contain the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services, their intended market and the sales potential in these areas. It should also contain brief information of the finances required to implement the plan and the competitive advantage of the company (DeThomas, 11). A management plan is a plan showing the employees that should be involved in the implementation of the plan. The suitable persons to help in the implementation process should have a set of skills and experience. The Human Resource management should recommend this skills and requirements. The management plan should have well outlined ways showing the sales and marketing required, production of goods, and the financial administration. Every segment in the plan should have adequate allocated time (Pinson, 25). A business plan should contain a market research analysis. It contains details
Monday, October 28, 2019
Card Game Essay The study was commenced inside the Computer Shop at Dasmarinas, Cavite. After we discussed our first topic we planned to come up with a Card Game as our second topic for the sake of our thesis project in Software Engineer Subject. We picked Card Game as our second topic because we feel that itÃ¢â¬â¢s more challenging rather than hunting some companies around Dasmarinas. Some of the reasons why we picked Card Game as our second topic are because in this topic we own our time performing the codes of the program any time before the day of our defence without such pressure. Statement of the Problem From some of the research and data we gathered. We found a few application and websites that is running a similar online game like our propose topic. From what weve seen some major problem that they have is that the game is not quite user friendly. Its difficult to use the control. Because of the lack of visual control buttons. There is also limitation on how many game can it accommodates at the same time. Of course keeping the gamers idle for so long they might lose interest in the game Research Objectives The Objectives of this research is to develop a game that will be entertaining and at the same time, a game that will be educational that may enhance thinking and decision-making skill in the following ways: * To make unique cards in the game that will allow diversity for the players to think of their own strategy. * To ensure that players will have no advantage against each other by making cards balance. * To allow multiplayer (online) for players to play against each other in different parts of the world. Significance of the Study Cardfight vanguard is a trading card game there are also people who wants to experience playing this game but doesnt have the luxury of buying the needed cards and also looking for people to play with. Since people now are more often browsing the internet people who want to play Vanguard can play the game without buying the necessary cards needed and having to worry of looking for someone to play with. Conceptual Framework * PHP Hypertext Preprocessor. * Randomized * Easy access * Less hassle Electronic Trading Card Game The model above explains on what and how will be the process of the study. Trading Card Game is a game played using specially designed sets of playing cards. While trading cards have been around for longer, TCGs (Trading Card Games) combine the appeal of collecting with strategicgameplay, but in our study we will do it in a different way by using PHP Hypertext Pre-processor as our scripting language for this study and for our main function for this logical game is the random() function. The researchers will assure an easy access program for the user and it lessens hassle because rather than bringing your deck of cards using your bare hands, just bring your portable computer and start playing the game on your most comfortable place.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Aspects Of Social Work Theories Social work involves working in profoundly emotional events in peoples lives, its practice is demanding and challenging and perhaps one of its most unique qualities is the balance it holds between understanding and working with the internal and external realities of service users (Bower, 2005). In 1935, Charlotte Towle, a pioneering social worker, deeply influenced the profession recognising that social workers needed to secure knowledge of human behaviour to understand service users. She distinguished between knowing people and knowing about people, suggesting the core of social work to be the interaction between the service user and the social worker (Towle, 1969). More recently, literature has expressed a continued relationship based approach to social work, which emphasises the importance of the social work relationship and the quality of the social work experience provided (Trevethick, 2003, Howe, 1998). Understanding how to best facilitate relationships and work with service users requires acquisition of knowledge from a range of disciplines, theories and skills (Strean, 1978, Hollis, 1964). Trevithick (2000) discusses that the insight derived from psychoanalysis, the psychodynamic approach and its theories on the unconscious can assist the social worker in offering a framework for understanding complex human relationships. The approach has had a major impact on social works development as theories on the unconscious have impacted on ways of working with service users (Pinkus et al, 1977) The psychodynamic approach derives from Sigmund Freuds psychoanalysis, a method of inquiry, theory of mind and body of research. Contrary to the prevailing thought at the time, where the assumption of psychology was that human behaviour was rational and the key to understanding human behaviour was to focus upon human consciousness, Freud (1936) believed that human behaviour was irrational and much of our personality, motives and behaviour were unconscious. Central to Freuds theories was the idea that certain experiences during childhood that are too painful to remember and are unconsciously repressed. According to Freud, these repressed thoughts give rise to states of anxiety or depressions which can be expressed in physical symptoms (Freud, 1986). In the 1920s social work practice shifted dramatically as they began working in hospitals and clinics, extending their exposure to psychiatric thinking (Goldstein, 1995). In a publication in 1940, Annette Garret became one of the first social work authors to comment on the impact of Freuds work on social work theory and practice, advocating for psychoanalytical ideas to be used by social workers (Brandell, 2004). Freud and his colleagues came to realise that symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and other psychological disorders could be expressions of unconscious conflicting impulses and unresolved issues (BPS, 2007). They explored the idea of transference, the projection of unconscious feelings of unresolved issues from the service user onto the worker. The issues were connected to significant others in their past. The service user experiences the worker through this lens and sees the worker as if he or she is the person from their past. The unconscious remembers feelings from the past and projects them into the present. The feelings from service user to the worker are the transference and the workers feelings towards the service user are the counter transference. Freud noted that transference and counter-transference were experienced in the therapeutic relationship (Freud, 1986). This notion has implications for social work in that it allows the social worker to be aware of his/her unresol ved issues that may impact on the working relationship with a service user and also allows the social worker to be mindful of hoe the service user is viewing the working relationship. Payne (1991) discusses how a social workers unconscious feelings can be awakened while working with a service user who perhaps reminds him/her of an experience or time in his/her own life. Freuds theories relating to the unconscious show that rational human choice may be overridden by our unconscious inner conflicts (Brandell, 2004) and can aid us in understanding human behaviour. The theories encourage social workers to have an open mind when working with distressed service users, enabling them to individualise the person in their environment, suggesting that each service user is unique in personal experience, strength and weakness (Strean, 1993). Transference and counter transference recognise that both service users and social workers are human beings and that to work effectively together involves acknowledging the emotions associated with all relationships (Trevithick, 2000). Schon (1983), Fook and Gardner (2007), Thompson and Thompson, (2008) advocate the importance of being a reflective practitioner. I feel that the psychodynamic perspective can assist social workers in acquiring the self knowledge it takes to become reflective. Trevithick (2003) describes this self knowledge as being what we learn about ourselves over time, including practice wisdom, our ability to be honest with ourselves about strengths and qualities while at the same time accepting our limitations. However, Freuds theories have their limitations in respect of social work practice. As Freud used non scientific methods in his research, it is difficult to prove or disprove his ideas. Freud did not have any concrete data, but undertook many individual assessments, mainly with older upper class women and for this reason, his work is considered sexist (Mitchel, 1974) and also euro and ethnocentric (Robinson 1995, Trevithick, 2000) as the studies on white populations. Fernando (1991) suggest that Freud saw other cultures as primitive in comparison to western white society implying a racist slant and Strean (1979) goes further to state that Freud had limited cultural assumptions and deviations from this cultural norm were considered abnormal and worthy of his treatment. However, in spite of this, Cameron (2006) points out that the psychodynamic approach has been taken up in many cultural contexts, most notably in Latin America, India and Japan. In light of criticism, however, the psychoanalytical concepts put forward by Freud and developed by later analysts have enriched our knowledge of mental functioning and human relationships and informs the relationship aspect of social work. It not only assists in informing the social work/service user relationship but also the relationships that service users have had in the past, experience in the present and will have in the future. Social work is about working with people and the psychodynamic perspective brings an extra skill of awareness into the mix. Freud began to understand, through this stage development theory for children, that the childs relationship to parental figures is the prototype for all subsequent relationships in the childs life (Freud, 1986). These can involve emotions such as rivalry, jealousy, guilt, love and hate. Freud felt that our sexuality began at a very young age and developed through various fixations. If each stage was not completed, we would develop an anxiety and late in life a defence mechanism to avoid that anxiety (Freud 1986). Freud developed the first stage development theory which acknowledges the issue of attachment between mother and child, a theory which later would be developed by other psychoanalysts and disciplines. The traumatic effects of prolonged separation between mother and infant are widely recognised today and this has led to radical changes in the management of children in hospital (BPS, 2007). Later followers of Freud, such as, Erik Eriksen and John Bowlby, came to realise, parti cularly through their work with children, that experiences of early infancy, though lost to the conscious mind in adulthood, nevertheless live on in the unconscious and continually affect and shape relationships and behaviour in everyday life (BPS, 2007). Bowlby (1951) developed Freuds theory, agreeing with Freuds emphasis on the importance of the childs attachment to the mother as a basis for later emotional relationships. His attachment theory describes how our closest relationships begin in infancy and set the stage for subsequent development. When the relationships are secure, they promote self reliance, confident exploration of the environment and resiliency in dealing with lifes stresses and crises. Lack of secure attachment can lead to emotional problems, difficulty relating to others and a vulnerability to psychological distress (Sable, 2004, Bowlby 1951). Bowlby believed that a mother inherits a genetic urge to respond to her baby and there is a critical period after the baby is born during which the mother and baby form an attachment. One of the most controversial aspects of Bowlbys theory was the claim that babies have an innate tendency to become attached to their primary caregiver, usually the mother, and that this attachment is different from other attachments. Any disruption of this bond in this period can have serious long term consequences. This has been criticised by other theorists who state that the attachment does not have to lie with the mother, it can be with any care giver (Schaffer Emerson, 1964). Mary Ainsworth, a psychologist devised a laboratory experiment called the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, 1978) which showed that Bowlbys evolving ideas could be tested and given a research base. A baby was observed in a set of seven situations, with the mother, with the mother and a stranger, with just a stranger and on its own. The babys reactions were observed (Ainsworth and Bell, 1970). Ainsworth found that psychological health is related to the positive quality of these attachment experienced, both present and past and the personal meaning attributed to them. Psychological distress is perceived as a distortion of the attachment systems and symptoms of anxiety, depression or anger reflect the internalisation of adverse affection experienced resulting in dysfunction (Sable, 2004). The behaviour of the parents towards the child, whether they are sympathetic and respond to the childs needs is important and according to Ainsworth, the more parents accept the child on the childs terms, the more securely attached the child is (Ainsworth and Bowlby, 1965). In applying Bowlbys theory to social work, we can see how social workers can construct an understanding of service users early lives and guide managing the relationship in the future (Sable, 2000). Bowlby (1982) proposed that children internalise the relational experiences with their primary care givers during their first year and develop internal working models, which help to predict and understand our environment. The bond that we create with our primary care giver shapes how we respond to others in later life (Bowlby, 1982). Studies from Ainsworth (1967) and Ainsworth et al (1978) support this theory. In social work with children, it is common to see a childs challenging and disruptive behaviour being understood as an attempt to test whether adults are reliable or consistent than previous ones (Payne, 2005). The psychodynamic approach offers an explanation for relationship behaviour in the service users we work with. Bowlbys attachment theory and the concept of resilience has also been used in social work with children to achieve positive outcomes for looked after children where care provided to looked after children aims to provide a secure base, self esteem and self efficacy (Gilligan, 1998). The policy document, Caring for children away from home (DoH, 1998) explains that children in the care system will often have had a long history of family problems and an emotionally turbulent life, leaving their personal development damaged and their capacity for basic trust in people severely compromised. This document highlights that social workers will have to work with service users who display patterns of insecure attachments. The ability for carers to provide secure attachment and emotional warmth is part of policy guidance in the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their families (DoH, 2000). Bowlbys attachment theory allows social workers to make the link between emotional develop ment, behaviour and the quality of relationships with their carers (Trevithick, 2000). Howe (2000) states that attachment theory can guide and inform social work interventions with children. It can act as a framework of theory and patterns of thinking. Bowlbys attachment theory can also help social workers make sense of the way in which service users engage with services. Most social workers have worked with service users who say that they would like support but cannot make use of the services on offer. This difficulty can indicate experience of distress in early childhood and can be understood in terms of their history of attachment bonds (Howe, 1999). Some service users seek to exert control in the relationship with a social worker, perhaps refusing support or making unrealistic demands. Social workers could view this as the service user being difficult or alternatively with consideration to attachment theory this could be understood in terms of the service users previous experience of rejection from their carers which has left them cautious of accepting help (Trevithick, 2000). In critical analysis of attachment theory, Schofield and Beek (2006) explain that although attachment theory can offer assistance, service users lives need to be considered uniquely, drawing on their wider environment, education, experiences of racism and economic background. For example, attachment to carers is central to working with looked after children but must be understood within a range of other factors (Schofield and Beek, 2006). It can also be argued that attachment theory does not incorporate enough consideration of issues of oppression that result from differences of race, gender, culture, sexuality and social-economic factors (Milner and OByrne, 2002). In a society where due to globalisation, colonisation, immigration and asylum seekers, families are having to travel great distances to secure attachments, Bowlbys eurocentric theories do not go far in explaining cultures or social work from a black perspective (Robinson, 1995). This highlights again that psychodynamic thought should not be used in isolation. Human nature is such that no one theory can account for the infinite range of difference amongst individuals. For example, difference in learning abilities and other problems in development such as autism can be mistaken for attachment disorders if examined in isolation (Rugters et al, 2004) The central ideas of the theory used today are that the quality of close relationships (or attachments) has a bearing on personality, emotional and social development not only in childhood but across the lifespan (Howe, 2001). In conclusion, it is evident that there are weaknesses to a psychodynamic approach in social work. Theories of the unconscious can partly explain human behaviour but it fails to take into account environmental, social, economic factors and issues of culture and race. It is also deterministic in its approach and does not leave much room for agency and change. However, there is not just one body of knowledge used in social work practice. Social work knowledge is derived from different approaches but what they all have in common is that they do not originate from or are specific to social work itself, recognising that social work theory is a political and social process (Payne, 1997). Briggs (2005) states that the overall the contribution of psychodynamic research is to bring in another point of view which enhances the reflective psychosocial space in which social work takes places. Psychodynamic insights can in part assist the social worker in the difficult and complex human situations in which they are involved. As a core component of social work, the ability to respond to peoples emotional needs, to their impulse for emotional development and to the difficulties they experience in forming or maintaining relationships, the psychodynamic perspective can assist in giving us another point of view. In terms of recent policy, high profile investigations since 2000 have highlighted the importance of effective relationship building in social work ( Laming, 2003 and Laming, 2009) These cases have caused nationwide concern beyond the professions and services involved, causing a frenzy of media comment and public debate, putting the social work profession under the microscope. Social workers need good observation and analytical skills in order to be able to understand the nature of the relationship between a parent and child, to understand signs of noncompliance, to work alongside a family, and to come to safe and evidence-based judgements about the best course of action (Laming, 2009). As social work continues to be very much under societys microscope, it is essential that it encompasses a body of knowledge from a wide variety of disciplines, always remaining open to new theory and knowledge while considering perspectives from other professions. Word Count 2,658
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Ganes, Earnest J. A Lesson Before Dying. New York: Vintage Books Ã 1993. Genre: Novel 256 pages Setting: The story is set in a small Cajun Louisiana town in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. The setting in this story is significant because, the whole story is about how a young black boy is treated unfairly and sentenced to death because of something he did not do. It also deals with the emotions that this black boy faces because he has been treated unfairly by the white people. Major Characters: Jefferson, black boy who is accused of a crime and sentenced to death; Grant Wiggons, teacher sent to help Jefferson. After he went and obtained a college degree, Grant Wiggins goes back to live with his grandmother. Being that he is a very educated person, Grant was elected by his grandmother to try and get Jefferson to realize that he was a man and not an animal like the white people had led him to believe. Throughout the entire novel, Grant is battling this idea in his head because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that even he knows what it is to be a man. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that he is the right person to talk to Jefferson. But by the end of the novel, he figures out what it is to be a man. Minor Characters: Miss Emma is JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother. She is the one who had the whole idea of Grant going up to the jail and talking to Jefferson, showing him that he is a man. Tante Lou is GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt. She is the person who raised Grant to be the good, kind person that he is. She is also the one who talked Grant into talking to Jefferson. Vivian is GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s girlfriend; she is GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s encouragement. Whatever problems he has, he always talks to her about them and she makes him feel better, and helps him through them. Summary: This story is about racism in the south and how it affects the people it concerns. It starts out with Jefferson being sentenced to death for a crime that he did not commit. He was in the wrong place, at the wrong time, and because he was black, they assumed he did it. Grant Wiggins is told to go up to the jail and convince Jefferson that he is a man. At first he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to make Jefferson see that he is a man, but through visiting Jefferson, talking to Vivian and witnessing things around the community, he is able to reach Jefferson, convince him that he was a man.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Generational Conflicts in The Kiss and Marriage Is a Private Affair Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As a family's lineage develops, there may be apparent differences in the way of thinking, attitude, and devotion to tradition between the generations. These differences or developments can either build up friction between generations, or in some cases ultimately heal the discord between other generations. Both Julia Alvarez's contemporary short story, "The Kiss," and Chinua Achebe's classic "Marriage Is a Private Affair" reveal the conflict that can erupt when one generation of a family diverges from its traditional or family values.Ã Both accounts display differences in the way of thinking of the conflicting parties and touch upon the aspect of healing their generation gap by offering some kind of appeasement. Ã There is the major theme portrayed in both stories. In each, there is a forbidden marriage that comes about as a result of children disagreeing with and hence rebelling against the traditional customs or values of their family. The major protagonist in each account coincidentally is the father who goes to great extents to estrange the rebellious offspring. Despite the fact that each story is written within a different era and culture, they both exhibit the dominant male figure as the family head, with very little or no input on what is right for the family from any other member. The paternal figures are strongly opinionated and do not waver from what they believe should be the proper behavior of their children, resulting in conflicts between Papi and Sofia, and Okeke and Nnaemeka. Ã Foreshadowing of the main conflict in "The Kiss" is evident when Papi cautions his daughters by exclaiming, "I do not want ... ...s in real life situations, the birth of a child or in this case grandchildren, brings about pacification to feelings of dissension. The celebration of a new life, therefore, is far more important than any scuffle that might have hindered previous marital relationships, and both Achebe and Alvarez have proved this with their own unique styles. Ã Ã Works Cited Ã Achebe, Chinua. "Marriage Is s Private Affair." Literature. 5th ed. Ed. RobertÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã DiYanni. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002. 253-257. Alvarez, Julia. "The Kiss." Literature. 5th ed. Ed. Robert DiYanni .Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002. 488-495. Atwood, Margaret.Ã "Happy Endings."Ã Literature.Ã 5th ed.Ã Ed Robert DiYanni. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.Ã 496-499. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Swimming With Giants My Encounters with Whales, Dolphins, and Seals Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The novel Swimming With Giants, by Anne Collet was an extraordinaire piece of literature about a biologists experience with the animals she loves. It is simply a book that expresses not only the wonder but also the tenderness that encounters with whales and other giants of the sea engender. The story tells of Anne ColletÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences as a young girl to a well known biologist. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Anne Collet was a child she had her first encounter with the sea, as many young children do, by going on vacations with her family. From that point on she knew it was what she would want to do with her life. She went to college at a university in Brest and enrolled into the department of marine biology. This is where she began to study the sea and all its creatures in it. In 1973 Anne had her first Dolphin encounter and from then on became infatuated with the Ã¢â¬Å"GiantsÃ¢â¬ of the sea. Her passion was for Dolphins and Whales. Collet became, and is today, the founder and director of the Center for Research on Marine Mammals in La Rochelle. She has been a Biologist for the past twenty years and has enjoyed every second of it. In her books she speaks with vivid intensity of her encounters with whales, dolphins and seals throughout the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oceans. She conveys the thrilling aspects of her work with marine mammals, from the sublime gaze of a whaleÃ¢â¬â¢s eye to the race to save animals harmed by drift nets or toxic spills. Like the teenagers she regularly takes on her voyages, the reader will not only learn about such things as whale evolution and the unusual sensitivity of dolphinsÃ¢â¬â¢ skin, but will experience her passion for the ocean, respect for its creatures, and heartfelt concern about Ã¢â¬Å"scorched seaÃ¢â¬ policy of over fishing, trawl fishing and pollution.
DESCRIPTION GE believes its ability to develop management talent is a core competency that represents a source of sustainable competitive advantage. This case traces the development of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s rich system of human resource policies and practices under five CEOs in the post-war era, showing how the development of talent is embedded into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing management responsibilities. It describes the development of a 25-year-old MBA named Jeff Immelt, who 18 years later is named as CEO of GE, arguably the biggest and most complex corporate leadership job in the world and how he frames his priorities for GE and implements them, pulling hard on the sophisticated human resource levers his predecessors left him. Immelt questions whether he should adjust or even overhaul three elements of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s finely tuned talent machine. LEARNING OBJECTIVE To examine the importance of managing human capital as carefully as financial capital as a scarce strategic resource. SUBJECTS COVERED Business policy; Competitive advantage; Core competencies; Corporate strategy; Diversified companies; Human resource management; Implementing strategy; Leadership; Management development; Organizational behavior SETTING Company Employee Count: 300,000 Ã¯â · Company Revenue: $132 billion revenues Ã¯â · Event Year Begin: 1960 Ã¯â · Event Year End: 2003 BUILDING THE TALENT MACHINE: HISTORY OF GEÃ¢â¬â¢S HR PRACTICES Strengthening the Foundations: CordinerÃ¢â¬â¢s Contributions Ralph Cordiner was president of GE from 1950-1958 and CEO from 1958-1963. Under his leadership, the following initiatives were implemented: 1. Decentralized GEÃ¢â¬â¢s management structure, transferring authority down to nearly 100 department-level businesses. 2. Spent $40 million annually on management education, almost 10% of its earnings. 3. Initiated a new management evaluation process known as Ã¢â¬Å"Session C,Ã¢â¬ which resulted in career development plans and the rating of subordinates on a six-point scale from Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"unsatisfactory.Ã¢â¬ 4. Introduced a system of objective performance evaluation tied to 28 position levels (PLs) that showed entry, median and maximum level salaries for each level. Systematizing HR Processes: Borsch and Jones Fred Borsch was CEO from 1963-1972. During his tenure he: 1. Implemented a new round of corporate diversification. 2. Overcame department managersÃ¢â¬â¢ tendency to keep talented managers to themselves, which was accomplished by having the top 2% of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s employees (PLs 13-27) report directly to him. 3. Had GE business leaders identify potential managerial talent and track all Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialsÃ¢â¬ to make sure they were exposed to a wide range of GE businesses. Reg Jones was CEO from 1972-1981. He introduced a more formal and structured approach to strategic planning, creating 43 strategic business units and adding another organizational layerÃ¢â¬âthe sectorÃ¢â¬âto put groups together based upon common characteristics. Supercharging the System: WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s Initiatives Jack Welch became CEO in 1981. During his time as CEO, he: 1. Concentrated on improving performance in order for GE to become #1 or #2 in their current businesses. 2. Implemented the Ã¢â¬Å"fix it, sell it, or close itÃ¢â¬ strategy for businesses that were not #1 or #2. 3. Eliminated over 100,000 jobs. 4. Collapsed the 29 positions levels (PLs) into seven broad bands. 5. Granted stock options for performance. 6. Invested heavily in management development. 7. Reconsidered competing for management recruits from the pool of most hunted college and business school graduates. Went after disciplined, self-motivated candidates from Midwestern engineering programs, night schools and former military officers. 8. Insisted managers be evaluated on how they live up to GEÃ¢â¬â¢s values, as well as objective performance measures. 9. Added a disciplined performance analysis to Session C by asking managers to rank subordinates on a Ã¢â¬Å"vitality curveÃ¢â¬ : the top 20%, highly valued 70% and least effective 10%. 10. Tightly integrated HR systems with other business elements to constantly look for Ã¢â¬Å"high potentials.Ã¢â¬ THE MAKING OF A CEO: THE RISE AND RISE OF JEFF IMMELT Jeff Immelt joined GE in 1982. He was a 25-year old Harvard MBA who impressed the GE Harvard MBA recruiting executive so much that Immelt didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even need to go through the normal process of going through the corporate referral center. The recruiting executive recommended Immelt to senior management and suggested that Jack Welch get involved to make sure Immelt didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a job somewhere else. Within 30 days of his hiring, Immelt was part of a team presenting to Welch. The Plastics Experience: Building Skills Immelt started out as a regional sales manager for GE Plastics with 15 people reporting directly to him. Over the next seven years, Immelt held positions as product manager, sales manager and global marketing manager. He was one of 150 other young Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialsÃ¢â¬ being tracked for positions at the highest levels of the company. In 1987, Immelt was selected to attend the Executive Development Course at Crotonville. This course was important for ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s possible selection as a company officer and provided him excellent networking opportunities with other high potential managers. The Appliances Challenge: The Turnaround Test In 1989, Immelt was moved to the Appliances service business. He was placed in the Appliances business to figure out what to do with over one million defective refrigerators that had been sold by GE. Immelt knew this was an excellent opportunity and that he would either Ã¢â¬Å"sink or swim.Ã¢â¬ Over one million refrigerator compressors were replaced with new units that came from competitors. The recall operation went well and Immelt was asked to run the entire marketing and product marketing operations, reporting directly to the CEO of Appliances. Immelt got frank feedback during his Session C evaluations and was counseled that he needed to listen better, to empower his subordinates more and to channel his energy into bringing his people along with him when he wanted action. In 1992, Jack Welch moved Immelt back to Plastics. Plastics Redux: Trial by Fire After a year back at Plastics, Immelt was named head of Plastics Americas, reporting directly to the CEO of Plastics. Immelt faced challenges when his operation missed its numbers by $30 million, due to cost overruns, and he had tried to renegotiate prices with its big customer, General Motors. GM was ready to stop doing business with GE when Welch and GMÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO decided to work together in order to solve the problem. Welch checked with Immelt regularly to see how Immelt was handling the situation. Welch was not happy with Immelt, but he watched Immelt closely and allowed the decisions made regarding the relationship with GM to be ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s. Immelt understood that he would not be punished for making a mistake. He knew, however, that Ã¢â¬Å"you can failÃ¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"we donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow you to make the same mistake twice.Ã¢â¬ Medical Systems: Putting It All Together In 1997, Immelt was appointed to run GE Medical Systems. Prior to ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival, GE Medical had been focusing on cost-cutting. Instead, Immelt emphasized growth and started to expand into other businesses and make GE Medical a more global company. He started acquiring companies, investing in new technologies and restructuring global operations. ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s style was to engage and energize those around him. Immelt began to mentor and coach other high potential managers, and as a result of his leadership and the success of his team, in four years, GE MedicalÃ¢â¬â¢s sales doubled and its profit more than doubled. Because of his excellent work leading GE Medical, by 2001, Jeff Immelt had become one of the front-runners to succeed Jack Welch as CEO of GE. The Succession Process WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s list of CEO succession candidates included then-current business heads, some senior corporate officers and about a dozen young Ã¢â¬Å"hot shots,Ã¢â¬ like Immelt. From 1994, members of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s board visited various GE businesses to get a direct impression of potential CEO candidates. By 2000, it was widely speculated that the three top contenders were Jeff Immelt, Jim McNerney and Bob Nardelli. In October 2000, the board discussed the three finalists and in November, Immelt was unanimously voted CEO designate. NEW HANDS ON THE CONTROLS: JEFF IMMELT, CEO Jeff ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s first day as CEO was September 10, 2001. He called it the Ã¢â¬Å"one good dayÃ¢â¬ of his first year on the job. The next day was 9/11 and from then on, GEÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses, like those of other companies, faced hard times and a drop in its stock price. ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s Priority: Leveraging Human Capital for Growth Immelt was committed to GEÃ¢â¬â¢s continued growth and he spent an estimated 40% of his time on human resource issues. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Every initiative IÃ¢â¬â¢m thinking about gets translated immediately into recruiting, Crotonville and Session C.Ã¢â¬ ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s five key human resource initiatives were: 1. Target technology skills during Session C reviews. Review the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s engineering pipeline, the organization of its engineering function and evaluate the potential of its engineering talent. (Immelt was concerned that technology-oriented managers were under-represented in GEÃ¢â¬â¢s executive ranks.) 2. Open new channels of communication between businesses and geographical areas. Share ideas. 3. Emphasize customer relationships and marketing. 4. Develop GEÃ¢â¬â¢s globalization strategy. (Immelt appointed Ferdinando Beccalli as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first CEO of GE Europe; named a new president and CEO of China; and began offering courses at Crotonville to Chinese management and Chinese customers.) 5. Invest in businesses heavier in human capital than in physical capital. (Immelt identified six growth platformsÃ¢â¬âhealthcare information technology, water technology and services, oil and gas technology, security and sensors, Hispanic broadcasting, and consumer finance.) THE TALENT MACHINE IN 2003: SERVICE, TUNE UP, OR OVERHAUL? In 2003, Immelt was reflecting on his first full year as CEO. Times had not been good; GEÃ¢â¬â¢s stock was down and employees were uneasy about the economic downturn. Management and employee turnover was low, but Immelt wanted to make sure that when the economy picked up, employees would be motivated and engaged. He wondered if it was time to adjust or overhaul GEÃ¢â¬â¢s talent machine. The Vitality Curve While the rankings-based vitality curve had been controversial to many outsiders, long-term GE employees viewed it as part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s meritocracy-based culture. Immelt felt that other companies had experienced difficulty with the process because it requires feedback, coaching, training and clear performance goals. All the elements of the evaluation system must work together. However, in early 2003, Immelt noticed that BankAmerica had successfully recruited over 90 GE employees. These employees had been targeted, not from the top 20%, but from the highly valued 70%. Immelt felt this group was the backbone of GE and were not to be considered just average. Should the system be modified to differentiate within this group? Should recognition and rewards be less sharply focused on the top 20%? Or, should the entire concept of performance ranking at GE be questioned? Recruitment GE was driving toward more service-intense global businesses. Immelt wondered about the talent pool he would need to run these businesses. One proposal was to target MBAs with marketing management career interests. Immelt also wondered if GE was not over-reliant on its US-based recruitment programs. Since 40% of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues were generated offshore, should there be more non-Americans in executive positions? Executive Bands One problem with the collapse of the 29 PLs into seven broad executive bands was that some employees, especially in international locations, felt that their promotion opportunities were limited and the frequency of clearly defined job promotions decreased. In more hierarchical business cultures, such as India, perceived status and level were highly valued. While there might not be a real difference between a PL15 and PL16, for many it represented an important psychological reward.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Introduction When a competitor develops and introduces a superior product that is less costly to manufacture and even many times usable and durable, the key to people at Precision Worldwide must decide whether to match the competitor's product, when to do so, how to price or what sustainable competitive advantage it needs to adopt during the next strategic period, given that it holds a large inventory of its now inferior product. This issue concerns the steel and plastic rings which the company, Precision Worldwide, Inc. PWI) is opting to produce as a matter of competing intensively with a French company, Henri Poulenc, which was at the same time posing a big threat to the viability of the steel rings PWI is producing. . PWI is confronted not only with a substitute product which is both cheap and durable. Compared to PWIÃ¢â¬â¢s steel rings, the plastic rings being produced by Henri Poulenc is both cheaper and lasts longer. PWI is also facing the risk of earning the ire of its custo mers if it manufactures but selectively introduces the cheaper plastic rings in areas where it is faced with the Ã¢â¬ËplasticÃ¢â¬â¢ competition. As a result, PWI is now confronted with a dilemma of differences in strategic measures to undertake given the differing opinions of its key people. Questions Posted for this Note: 1. You have to analyze the existing data, the conflicting views of the sales manager and the Development engineer. And make a decision as to whether PWI should begin the manufacture of a plastic ring. Answer: From the standpoint of the qualitative aspect of competition, PWI is encouraged to start manufacturing of the plastic ring if it is to avert a more serious consequence of being eased out of the market due to a cheaper, more durable plastic ring. Regardless of the fact that PWI still has an inventory of the special steel material and the completed steel rings, yet PWI should approach the problem with a resolve in terms of the qualitative factor of competition. The cost of the existing inventory will have to be matched with the opportunity cost of being eased out of the competition Ã¢â¬â that is, pitting the income from the substitute with the potential loss of the opportunity income due to a prompt entry into the plastics market. For PWI, the signs of change are showing: the presence of a cheaper and better substitute which should not be ignored totally. Hence, this needs to be seriously considered as a threat. The presence of alternatives as exemplified by Henri Poulenc should encourage PWI to explore this option. 2. In addition, a plan needs to be designed as to the pricing policy to follow for both the steel and the plastic rings. Answer: A plan for the pricing policy is similarly considered urgent to explore the opportunities of lower cost or such cost being at par with the competition, both for the steel and plastic rings. Any form of pricing policy will have to be dependent on the cost of production and operations of PWI. Opportunities for cost reductions through outsourcing, reengineering and redundancy layoffs should be seriously considered. Among the avenues that can be explored include outsourcing of the manufacturing of the steel and plastic rings, either with Henri Poulenc or with other equally cost-effective firms. A number of plastic or steel rings manufacturer may offer a cheaper cost structure for PWI. An additional strategy to a pricing policy for the steel and plastic ring is to reengineer the manufacturing operations for the rings to explore ways of reducing production cost to lower the selling price for the part. Part of this operations restructuring measure include: evaluation of the sources of raw materials as means of looking for cheaper suppliers. (Kaplan & Norton, 2004) Comparatively, indeed, the costs of raw materials for both plastic and steel rings are too big to be ignored. PWI has to take the initiative to explore the use of alternatives like plastic which has been found feasible by Henri Poulenc. On the other hand, the labor and overhead cost may be studied in detail to explore automated production to manage the cost-price relationship. Cost variance analysis is needed to determine areas for improvements and opportunities. Pricing policies will then come after target costing measures are explored. (Garrison & Noreen, 2003) 3. Finally, some considerations should be given to the effect of the decision upon the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s image in the marketplace. Answer: There are a number of considerations that may likely impact the image-building processes of PWI are to be seriously considered when making decisions. Thus the effect of decisions involving the following issues is considered: (1) the issues involving the cost structure which continue to hamper the pricing policies and market potentials of PWIÃ¢â¬â¢s products. It appears that PWI has not really looked into the possibility of actively pursuing efforts to compete in the market through cost-effective production processes, lower prices to recognize the availability of better-equality substitutes such as the plastic rings; (2) the possible discovery of distributing the planned cheaper plastic rings in areas where competition is tight. This issue might prove to be an indefensible issue if customers discover such unfair selective distribution scheme; (3) the disposal of the remaining inventory of special steel and the finished steel rings might not be acceptable to the market unless prices are made more attractive and useful to the buyer. However, disposal made at a cheaper price and the prompt introduction of the plastic rings at a competitive price might mitigate the possible losses of the steel materials and steel rings. This can bring a positive impact in favor of the PWI for its initiative at providing its customers with marked down prices of steel rings. And, (4) the production of plastic rings at a cheaper cost will enable the company to bring a message of dynamism to the market despite the prospect of competition. (Hill, 2008) 4. How long is it prudent to sell a short-lived highly profitable replacement part without jeopardizing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s image and market share? Answer: The introduction of the plastic rings into the market should be followed by a market survey to determine the acceptability of the market to the innovation. An analysis of the consumer behavior is important in planning the appropriate action to be taken on the period required to sell the plastic rings. The survey should be able to tell the effects of the innovation for PWI to assess how long the product can be introduced into the market without affecting the image and market share of the company. 5. What price relationship is likely to prevail between the steel rings and the plastic rings once the latter become widespread? Answer: The price relationship expected to prevail between the steel rings and the plastic rings might at a ratio of 5:1 which means that five plastic rings is equivalent to one steel ring. This relationship however, can significantly change as the cost structure is reevaluated and inputs analyzed to arrive at a more competitive cost structure enough to sustain the production of both the steel and the plastic rings. . How should the 15,100 finished steel rings that will still be on hand in September be treated for analytical purposes? Answer: The inventory of finished steel rings will be used up in due time by September based on estimates of periodic and regular consumption. The remaining inventory can be classified at scrap and marked down accordingly to encourage sales and turnover. 7. Will the price rings hold at $1,350 once plastic rings are introduced? Answer: The price will no longer hold at $1,350 for the steel rings. The price of the traditional steel rings will drop accordingly due to the presence of substitutes and the demand to become more competitive. 8. Will the price of steel rings fall to one-fourth of the plastic ringsÃ¢â¬â¢ price? Answer: It is probable that the price of the steel rings will fall to one-fourth or even beyond as components of the cost become stable, but there are still variables to consider that may affect the pricing: that is, the issue of reengineering the production which may lead to lower costs. 9. What effects will the decision in respect to plastic rings and steel rings have on the sale of other PWI products?particularly of the industrial machines? Answer: Since the pricing policy of PWI will affect the options to be made by the company, the effect of decisions on the plastic and steel rings may rationalize the prices of the machines as the cost burden is shifted from the steel to the plastic area. (Garrison & Noreen 2003) 10. Can the plastic rings be sold in France without affecting PWIÃ¢â¬â¢s other markets? Answer: At the short run, there will be no effect. However, in the long run, when customers are able to gain access to the French market through the globalization phenomenon, customers will start to shift sourcing of rings from the traditional sources to France where are able to make good use of their financial resources. 11. What action should Hans Thorborg take? Why? Answer: Thorborg should explore existing and future capabilities to arrive at the various options. Here, the bottom line is the capability to produce the plastic rings at a competitive price while disposing the inventory of steel materials and the steel rings. Thorborg needs to start retooling the production lines for the plastic rings. The threat from Henri Poulenc is real and may soon take some market share from PWI. The cost structure is a very fluid support for decisions as these can significantly change with a decision to outsource, reengineer or rationalize the labor and overhead component. Whatever options Thorborg choose to act on, needs the support of his key people in the company especially Henk and Eisenbach. (Anthony & Govindarajan, 2003)
Tailor's novel shows how racism and injustice continues even after when black slavery was ended as it is an unfortunate part of America's history. Cassia experiences racism and injustice in the store at Strawberry since she was treated unfairly since she had to give priority to white people in the queue Just because of the color of her skin. In this essay, it will contain how racism and injustice Is shown when Cassia was at the store, how It affects the reader and the Intentions of the author In this passage.Racial discrimination Is when you are showing abusive behavior towards members of another race, In this case It Is Mr.. Barnett discriminating Cassia. Injustice Is shown throughout the passage as white people were superior to black people as they were segregated by the Jim Crow Laws which gave white people more power over black people. In the passage, Mildred D Taylor shows that racial discrimination still existed during the Great Depression as Cassia was racially abused. For exa mple, Ã¢â¬Å"Whose little Ruggeri Is this! This reveals that Mr.. Barnett Is a racist person as he Is purposely calling classes a Ã¢â¬Å"RuggeriÃ¢â¬ which Is offensive to black people. The writers intention to use the word Ã¢â¬Å"NigerÃ¢â¬ was to show that it was an alternative word to call a black person and how it was used frequently during the Great Depression and the slavery times towards black people. This makes the reader understand the word Ã¢â¬Å"nighÃâÃ « was a word used every day and offensively towards black people during the Great Depression.It was also so common that white people felt it was alright to say Ã¢â¬Å"inning towards a black person since there was no consequences for saying a racist word as black people were inferior. However, even Hough the word Ã¢â¬Å"Niger made Cassia angry since she doesn't understand that white people were superior during the Great Depression but Stacey seems to understand and had to accept this as he is older than Cassia so th erefore, he has experienced more things such as this event but inside him, he retains his anger as he knows the consequences.This creates an effect on the reader as he/she would think this is vile and disgusting so therefore, since Cassia loves making revenge plans, the reader would be eager meaning that he/she will continue reading to find out more. This elapse the reader to understand that even after when black slavery was ended, black people were still continuously discriminated with the word Ã¢â¬Å"NigerÃ¢â¬ as the Jim Crow Laws kept white people superior to black people. Mildred D Taylor also shows that Injustice still existed during the Great Depression as black people were not allowed to question/speak up for themselves.For example Ã¢â¬Å"This gal your, Hazel? Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËNo sun,' answered the women meekly, stepping hastily away to show she had nothing to do with meÃ¢â¬ . This shows that black people wasn't allowed to speak up for themselves because of the UK Klux Kla n as they threatened black people. The Jim Crow Laws allowed white people to gain superiority over black people so therefore; If a white person killing a black person, the white person will not be charged meaning that Injustice existed even when slavery was finished so black people lived In fear as Hazel was Ã¢â¬Å"stepping hastily away to show she had nothing to do withÃ¢â¬ Classes.The writer's Intention was to show that black people wasn't allowed to speak up for themselves so therefore, they still didn't have freedom even after slavery was ended people. This helps the reader to understand that during the Great Depression, black people were muzzled by white people because there was a lot of injustice and racism towards black people which made black people inferior. In the passage, black people were not allowed to touch white people which made black people inferior. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"and tugged on his shirt sleeve to get his attention.He recoiled as if I struck himÃ¢â¬ . Thi s shows that some white people like Mr.. Barnett didn't like to be touched by black people because he thinks that they are dirty and disgusting as he Ã¢â¬Å"recoiledÃ¢â¬ when Cassia tried to get his attention. From this, the writer's intention is to show that white people didn't like being in contact with black people as they think they are too superior to them during the Great Depression. The writer also showed that black people was viewed as dirty people so therefore, white people didn't allow black people to touch them.This helps the reader to understand that not only black people was discriminated but they wasn't allowed to touch white people which means they didn't have freedom as they couldn't touch white people and they were treated like filth. The writer also intended too Ã¢â¬Å"recoiled as if I struck himÃ¢â¬ . This creates an effect n the reader as it gives a better imagery of how Mr.. Barnett reacted when Cassia tried to get his attention. If a black person touched a white person then the black person would be punished and would probably be lynched Just because he touched a white person.This is similar to Emmett Till's case but instead he said Ã¢â¬Å"Bye, baby' to a white female as he was leaving a store but then he was tortured and murdered because of what he said. This shows that black people had no freedom as they could only do certain things towards a white person but instead white people would be able to do anything to them. In the passage, Mildred D Taylor shows that racial discrimination and injustice continued during the Great Depression as black people were treated unfairly. In this case, Mr.. Barnett treated Cassia as an inferior person so he told Cassia to get her Ã¢â¬Å"little black self back over there and wait some moreÃ¢â¬ .This reveals that black people had to be served last in a queue which shows that black people were treated unfairly during the Great Depression as Cassia was forced to wait longer even though she waited for a while. Mr.. Barnett also shows no respect towards black people as he said Ã¢â¬Å"little black selfÃ¢â¬ . The writer's intention is to show that black people was racially discriminated in a shop as they were treated unfairly and had to wait until all the white people was served during the Great Depression.This helps the reader to understand that even black children was racially discriminated during the Great Depression as Cassia had to wait longer until all white people was served but Cassia understands that adults Ã¢â¬Å"ruled things and there was nothing that could be don't about them. Ã¢â¬ This reveals that Cassia understands things about adults but doesn't understand why white people are superior to white people and also made Cassia upset as she was being so kind to Mr.. Barnett but Mr.. Barnett responded rudely.In conclusion, this passage helps the reader in many ways to understand the theme of racism and injustice such as understanding how life was like being a black per son during the Great Depression, how unfair it was and how they lived in fear such as when Cassia was racially abused by Mr.. Barnett. Injustice and racism is shown throughout the passage as Mr.. Barnett racially discriminates Cassia. The passage also helps the reader to understand the theme of racism and as when Hazel was scared and had to be silenced by Mr.. Barnett.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Geography of Beauty It is a common English idiom to say that beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, but perhaps it is more accurate to say that beauty is in the geography, as cultural ideals of beauty vary drastically by region. Interestingly, the local environment seems to play an important role in what is seen as beautiful. Large Beauties Extreme forms of this practice include sending young girls to fattening farms, called gavages, alluding to their unfortunate similarity to French farms where geese are forcibly fed via sausage stuffers to create foie gras. Today, food is considerably less scarce, leading to many morbidly obese women in Mauritania. As Western media continues to infiltrate Mauritanian society, cultural preferences for large women are dying out in exchange for a slimmer Western ideal. Although Mauritania is an extreme example, this idea that large women are beautiful women are seen in other regions of the world where food is scarce, and populations are susceptible to famine, such as Nigeria and rainforest cultures. Flawless Skin Perhaps the most shocking facet of East Asian beauty is the fact that the male cosmetic industry is booming. In a society where flawless skin is considered an indicator of social success, South Korean males spend more on skin and makeup products that any other male population in the world. According to the Associated Press, this years male South Korean beauty industry is expected to gross over US $850 million. The trend for more feminine and pretty males in South Korea seems to be the result of an influx of Japanese cultural goods that portray male figures as romantic and effeminate. Skin Lightening With the southern portion of India residing in the Tropic of Cancer, Indias close proximity to the equator has resulted in the characteristically dark skin tone of its citizens. Indias infamous caste system, although based on birth and occupation, placed that vast majority of those with extremely dark skin into the lowest caste, classifying them as undesirables or untouchables. Although today the caste system is outlawed and it is prohibited to discriminate against someone based on his or her caste, the widespread beauty ideal of light skin is a subtle reminder of darker days. To feed this cultures obsession with light skin tones, a huge industry dedicated to lightening and skin bleaching creams flourishes in India. Light of My Eyes These coverings leave the eyes at the focus of the females face, or in more extreme communities; only the eyes are left uncovered. These cultural and religious norms have led many predominantly Islamic countries to focus on eyes as the epitome of beauty. This fixation of eyes is an integral part of Arabic culture. Many idioms of the Arabic language center on the eyes, for example, the Arabic equivalent of responding My pleasure when asked to do a favor roughly translates to By the light of your eyes I will do it. As Islam spread throughout the Middle East and into South Asia and Africa, it brought with it modesty practices for women such as the hijab and burka. With these new cultural norms, eyes likewise became the focal point of beauty in many of these cultures. In addition, khol is an ancient eye cosmetic used not only in the Middle East but also in Africa and South Asia. It is said that it was worn around the eye to protect from vision damage from the suns harsh rays, as these areas where khol is used regularly are very near to the equator and thus receive a lot of direct energy from the sun. Eventually, khol became used as an ancient form of eyeliner and mascara to line and accentuate the eyes. It is still used in many places today. What is beautiful is often not exactly a universal concept. What is seen as beautiful and attractive in one culture is seen as unhealthy and undesirable in another. Like so many other topics, the question of what is beautiful is intricately intertwined with geography.
The Hitchhiker`s Guide to the Galaxy Essays The Hitchhiker`s Guide to the Galaxy Paper The Hitchhiker`s Guide to the Galaxy Paper Absolutely! The HitchhikerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide narrates the tales of a low-profile small-town Englishman, Arthur Dent, who whooshes off with his friend and guide, Ford Prefect, a prominent intergalactic being temporarily residing in a human form on the earth, on a series of space adventures. From the outset it is obvious that Arthur Dent is no hero nor a role model. Yet, he is a character many of us, especially dreaming and fantasy-prone youngsters, can identify with. Many of us too hail from humble non-descript beginnings and, regardless, some of us certainly desire to be one day involved in matters of ultimate importance to the universe, just as Arthur Dent does in Douglas AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢s classic tale. Human nature consists of this supreme ambition to reach to the stars. We can laugh at it, we can make fun of it, we can even try to forget it, but not for too long can we get rid of it. There is a deep impulse within the human soul to reach the hand for the skies and set foot on distant worlds, whether we acknowledge it or not, and whether this be in a physical sense or in some symbolical sense. The Earth is our home, but the Universe is our home too, both being a part of the same continuum. It is for this reason precisely that the rather ingenuous character of Arthur strikes such a deep chord with us. Behind the form of SF spoof and satire, we can occasionally sense Adams addressing some deep human longings of meaning and being. Teenagers are full of such longing, it is very for this longing to be connected to the vastness of the universe in some way. The HitchhikerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide, in its own nonchalant and beguiling manner, can stretch our minds to a higher dimension. The universe is an infinite mystery. However, instead of being intimidated by its endless vastness, or being petrified in sheer awe of it, one has to learn just to take things in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s stride, and keep moving on. More than a central message or philosophy, Adams projects a certain attitude in his book. And it certainly rubs off on the young readers of the book, which is what perhaps explains the cult status of this novel. Thinking and philosophy, the incessant seeking and searching for answers Ã¢â¬â they are integral part of what we are and give us humans a sense of purpose and direction in life; without them we would be lost. Yet we can perhaps find a new dimension of ourselves which is quite at home with the universe, without the agency of a thinking mind acting either as a medium or as a barrier. Thinking is our most precious treasure, yet keeping it aside and being unburdened of it, even if only for a short while, and thereby connecting to the universe directly, can give rise to new perceptions and a new sense of exhilaration. The HitchhikerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide may seem like light satire that is designed to have fun at the expense of human values, beliefs, and intelligence (and sometimes particularly in a British context), but consciously or unconsciously, Adams has interwoven into the strands of its narrative some subtle themes and messages which are of deeper significance. This book does not take anything seriously, especially itself Ã¢â¬â and therein lies its essence. Yet in its own way it makes us think seriously about ourselves and the universe. It is an indirect, fun-filled and disarming approach to provoke some serious questions in us, the same questions it seemingly makes a mockery of. Every high school senior has to learn what the ultimate truth is. The ultimate answer to everything, after all, is so simple - it isÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, 42! Reference: ADAMS, DOUGLAS. Ã¢â¬Å"The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Ã¢â¬ First Ballantine Books Trade Edition. New York: Ballantine Books, 1997
Monday, October 21, 2019
Internet Fraud - Searching for an Explanation essays In seeking some form of rational explanation to comprehend the underlying reasons for the widespread, relentless, annoying scams on the Internet, looking at the classic strain theory (CST) puts things into a helpful context. According to an article in Youth al., 1997), individuals engaged in any kind of wrongdoing - such as scams involving phony spam-spawned email promises on the World Wide Web - are very likely people who were (or are) unable to "achieve their goals." The dominant goal, as has been very obvious for many years, is "monetary success or middle class status." Significant segments of society, the journal article continues, "are said to be prevented from achieving this goal through legitimate channels" - and somehow, getting a good education, and doing an honest day's work and saving and investing for the future are concepts that haven't worked for this deviant segment. And so, certain of these individuals "employ illegitimate means to achieve their goals," such as theft, "striking out at others in their anger, or retreating into drug use." And in this particular case, fraud on the Web might be better As to the "Nigerian Money Offers" email scheme - which anyone with email has no doubt seen in their "in box" - the persons behind this phony presentation may be having success, and don't want to stop, or perhaps they can't stop - like the drug smuggler who needs to make "just one more run" to put money away for the future, and only then will he quit. It may be that a fairly young, Web-savvy, technology-empowered individual - or small group of friends - started the Nigerian letter scam with just a few mailings, to try to make money because he (or they) didn't have good enough grades to get into the college his parents wanted him to go to. Or didn't want to go to college and was hooked on drugs, and needed money to keep his ...
How Geographic Differences Influenced American Artists essays How Geographic Differences Influenced American Artists Grant Wood and Fredric Remington were both American artist who painted on oil and canvas during the early part of the twentieth century. Grant Wood is best known for depicting American farmers during the 1930s. Fredric Remington is best know for painting the American West during the late ninetieth and early twentieth centuries. Their subject matters and painting techniques are vastly different. The oil on canvas painting Parson Weems Fable was painted by American Artist Grant Wood. Wood was an American artist who through his depiction of outdoor scenes combining a bright Fauve palette and a loose, impressionistic style. Wood painted during the early part of the twentieth century. Raised by Quaker parents his accessible, representational paintings showed reassuring American subjects tied to enduring myths about the perfection of agrarian life. Woods paintings reflected his surroundings as a young child. The painting looks as though you are being shown the subjects through the window by the man pulling the drapes back. The painting has abstract details such as the miniature The various shades of bright colors show many details. The various shades of green create detail and emphasis in the painting. The gray clouds moving in on the blue-sky emphasiss the idea of the calm before the storm. The shadows of the characters in the paining add detail. The vivid colors used on Washington and his father let the viewer know their importance. The man showing the painting is wearing a gray jacket. The paint thickness is the same throughout the paining. The brush strokes are smooth and do not take away from the message of the painting. The angle created by the two colors of the green grass creates a vocal point on the tree. The angle of the side of the building creates a diagonal line towards the tree. The ...
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Macbeth, Ruler by Divine Right Essays Macbeth, Ruler by Divine Right Paper Macbeth, Ruler by Divine Right Paper To discourage this mad scramble for power among the nobles, Shakespeare uses the theme of betrayal answered by reprisals to Justify the theology of the divine right of kings. During the time of Shakespeare, Europe had become a more ordered place since the time of the Dark Ages. During this time, the lands were ruled by warlords and war raged constantly as various rulers with their own armies struggled for power. Europe emerged from this time period, due in large part to the divine right of kings theology. According to this doctrine, God bestows on kings the right to rule. As James I writes, inns sit upon God his throne In the earth and have the count of their administration to give unto him (par. 4). An uprising against the king, which James describes as monstrous and unnatural, is by extension an uprising against the will of God (Label). Most Europeans at the turn of the first millennium were extremely religious therefore this made subjects much more willing to obey the king without questions. This aspect of the doctrine dramatically helped Europe to stabilize from its previous warring state because those who went against the king were also going against the will of God and therefore risking eternal damnation. Although this theology can easily be dismissed today as a naive invention in order to keep kings in power, it was widely accepted during the 16th and 17 centuries during Shakespearean time, due to the much greater influence of the church. Shakespeare uses the fact that there existed a large devotion to Charlatanry to comment on Macbeth character and further demonstrate the evils In the usurpation of authoritative figures. Machetes fall from grace closely resembles the similar fall of Lucifer from the courts of heaven to definitively point out the evils inherent in the unwarranted seizure of control. The rebellion of Lucifer is described in the book Isaiah as, How you have fallen from heaven, O morning star, son of the dawn! You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations! You said in your heart, l will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of the sacred mountain (Chapter 14: 12-13). These transgressions which reflect Machetes ambition to kill Duncan and unlawfully take the throne away from the rightful heir were swiftly punished by God who said, So I made a fire come out from you, and It ensured you, and I reduced you to ashes on the ground In the sight of all who were watching (Ezekiel 28:18). Shakespeare asserts that In scalar fashion as the great dragon was hurled down-that ancient serpent called the devil or Satan, who [seeks to] lead ten wangle world astray (Revelations 12 Y) as Machete Is lead astray Day ten witches planting the seeds of rebellion in his mind. Macbeth is often in close association with evil characters such as the three witches and Hectare throughout the play to reflect the changing character of Macbeth as he becomes more and more evil. It was the witches, who are associated with the devil, who first makes Macbeth obsessed with attaining power when they greet him with, All hail Macbeth! Hat shall be king hereafter (Shakespeare 1. 3. 50). By having both Banquet and Macbeth present when the witches promise great things for both of them, Shakespeare is asserting that all men will undergo temptation, but also that it is possible to stay devoted and loyal such as Banquet does even under great temptation. Macbeth, however, does not stay loyal to Duncan and a lmost immediately following the words of the witches he admits that, my thought, whose murder yet is UT fantastical shakes so my single state of man that function, is smothered in surmise, and nothing is but what is not (Shakespeare 1. . 139). With this personal confession, Macbeth reveals how he is struggling internally between his own personal ambition and what he knows is right. When he does later decide to murder Duncan, he acknowledges that his deed will entail all the kinds of violence civilization has been struggling to suppress since it first began (Watson) as he had just recently help put down a rebellion against Duncan, ironically enough. When Macbeth does betray Duncan, the consequences of this are enormous angina from fits of paranoia to his eventual death. The fallout of this central betrayal is foreshadowed early in the play when the former thane of Castor tried to betray Duncan and paid dearly for it. Duncan says that he was a gentleman on whom I built an absolute trust (Shakespeare 1. 4. 14) and because of this betrayal of trust he is executed and his title is given to Macbeth. The same fate will eventually await Macbeth as the rebel must be sacrificed to preserve [universal order] (Bloom) but first he is abandoned by everyone around his until he is alone with his evil thoughts. The first introduction to evil with respect to Macbeth the character is with his meeting with the three witches. As the play progresses, evil in association to Macbeth grow proportionately as the ones around him draw further away from him. The first abandonment from Macbeth is God abandoning him the night of Dunces murder. Banquet is describing the night sky to his son when he says, Their candles are all (Shakespeare 2. 1. 5) representative of God not being present at Machetes out castle because he knows what evil is to take place that night. After Dunces murder and Macbeth assumes the throne, his paranoia sets in and his own senses even egging to betray him as is evident by the apparition of the slain Banquet at a feast. The frightened and alarmed Macbeth remarks the time has been, that, when the brains were out, the man would die, and there an end: but now they rise again (Shakespeare 3. 4. 78). This psychological breakdown displays the spiritual struggle going through Macbeth as evil continues to consume him. The last stages of abandonment of Macbeth come Just before Macadam and Malcolm storm Machetes castle. The nobles see how corrupt and insane Macbeth and promptly defect; as Macbeth says, the thanes fly from me (Shakespeare 5. 3. 49). This desertion becomes o severe that the number of troops inside the castle so low that the only way to fight the oncoming enemy is to prepare for a siege. Macbeth describes the enemy force by saying, were teeny not Trace Walt n tense Tanat snout a De ours we malign nave met teem direful, beard to beard, and beat them backward home (Shakespeare 5. 5. 5). With God, his own senses, and his nobles abandoning him, the last person to do so is his wife. The person who he committed the initial crime dies of an unknown cause to foreshadow his similar death and to emphasize how truly alone he is at this point. The murder of Duncan is no mere political assassination. It is the very worst thing imaginable: most sacrilegious Murder (al. Iii. 68), violating all the bonds between man, nature and God (Bloom); because of his assassination of the king he has now lost all of those he holds dear around him. In this time of absolute solitude, Macbeth cries out to his servant, Sexton! I am sick at heart (Shakespeare 5. 3. 19). The name Sexton may be pronounced Satan in reference to Lucifer who had the original rebellion on which Machetes is only modeled. When Macbeth admits that he is sick at heart this signifies that the transformation to complete evil is now complete and o remnant of the loyal Macbeth remains. This reference to Lucifer makes the play turn full circle as the seeds of rebellion were planted by devilish characters and it ends in Macbeth becoming a devilish character himself. Macbeth does receive his ultimate punishment much like the previous thane of Castor by being executed and having his head cut off. Shakespearean theme of betrayal met by Zestful vengeance illustrate his views on how kings should be viewed as appointments by God and not to be overthrown, reflecting the view of the divine right of kings. The practice of this theology largely eloped Europe to exit the period of small warring nations and become the great power known as the West dominating the world intellectually and technologically for hundreds of years. Shakespeare was not the only writer to incorporate messages to discourage the usurpation of central powers, approximately 300 years before Shakespeare, Dante, who wrote the Inferno, described the lowest pit of hell as having three occupants. Two out of the three were there because of their part in the murder of Julius Caesar which weakened the Roman Empire and led to a power struggle. Both Dante and Shakespeare had similar ideas that rebellion against persons in rower were inherently evil deeds which only increased entropy in the universe and were acts of the devil.
How to Do the Color Change Chameleon Chemistry Demonstration The chemical chameleon is a wonderful color-change chemistry demonstration that may be used to illustrate redox reactions. The color change runs from purple to blue to green to orange-yellow and finally to clear. Color Change Chameleon Materials For this demonstration, you start by preparing two separate solutions: Solution A 2 mg potassium permanganate500 ml distilled water Dissolve a small amount of potassium permanganate into water. The amount isnt critical, but dont use too much or else the solution will be too deeply colored to see the color changes. Use distilled water rather than tap water to avoid problems caused by salts in tap water that affect water pH and can interfere with the reaction. The solution should be a deep purple color. Solution B 6 g sugar (sucrose)10 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH)750 ml distilled water Dissolve the sugar and sodium hydroxide in the water. The reaction between sodium hydroxide and water is exothermic, so expect some heat to be produced. This will be a clear solution. Make the Chameleon Change Colors When youre ready to start the demonstration, all you need to do is mix the two solutions together. Youll get the most dramatic effect if you swirl the mixture together to thoroughly combine the reactants. Upon mixing, the purple of the potassium permanganate solution immediately changes to blue. It changes to green fairly quickly, but it takes a few minutes for the next color change to pale orange-yellow, as manganese dioxide (MnO2) precipitates. If you let the solution sit long enough, the manganese dioxide will sink to the bottom of the flask, leaving you with a clear liquid. Chemical Chameleon Redox Reaction The color changes are the result oxidation and reduction or a redox reaction. The potassium permanganate is reduced (gains electrons), while the sugar is oxidized (loses electrons). This occurs in two steps. First, the permanangate ion (purple in solution) is reduced to form the manganate ion (green in solution): MnO4- e- Ã¢â â MnO42- As the reaction is proceeding, both the purple permanganate and green manganate are present, blending together to produce a solution that appears blue. Eventually, there is more green manganate, yielding a green solution. Next, the green manganate ion is further reduced and forms manganese dioxide: MnO42- 2 H2O 2 e- Ã¢â â MnO2 4 OH- Manganese dioxide is golden brown solid, but the particles are so small they make the solution appear to change color. Eventually, the particles will settle out of solution, leaving it clear. The chameleon demonstration is just one of many possible color change chemistry experiments you can perform. If you dont have the materials on hand for this particular demonstration, consider trying a different one. Safety Information Sucrose and distilled water are safe and non-toxic. However, appropriate safety gear (lab coat, safety goggles, gloves) should be worn when preparing the solutions and performing the demonstration. Sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate can cause irritation and chemical burns in contact with skin or mucous membranes. The chemical solutions must be labelled and kept away from children and pets to avoid accidental ingestion. Potassium permanganate is highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In some places, pouring a small quantity of a solution down the drain is allowed. The reader is advised to consult federal, state, and local regulations for proper disposal. Fast Facts: Chemical Chameleon Science Experiment Materials Potassium permanganateSucrose (table sugar)Sodium hydroxideDistilled Water Concepts Illustrated This demonstration is a good example of an exothermic reaction. The color change is produced via a redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction. Time Required The two chemical solutions may be prepared in advance, so this demonstration is instantaneous. Level The demonstration is suitable for all age groups. High school and college chemistry students studying redox reactions will get the most out of the experiment, but it can be used to stimulate interest in chemistry and science at any age. The demonstration may be performed by any high school or college chemistry teacher. Because there are safety protocols for using potassium permanganate and sodium hydroxide, this demonstration is not suitable for unsupervised children.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
ANALYSIS OF STUDIES OF ORGANIZATIONS - Case Study Example The purpose of this paper is to examine the case studies of North Cumbria Primary Care Trust, London Borough of Redbridge, Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council and Chorley Borough Council, in which changes in the organizational culture were implemented. According to Cumbria NHS (2006) the former North Cumbria Primary Care Trusts have been replaced by Cumbria Primary Care Trust (PCT). This is a major organization for health, serving a population of nearly five lakh people. The organization is responsible for providing primary and community health services, and for commissioning a full range of hospital sercvices for local people. As with all NHS Trusts, the Cumbria Primary Care Trust is required to conduct a self-assessment related to its compliance with national Core Standards for Health. The results reflect a significant improvement in compliance levels, as compared to the previous year. The newly initiated project Closer to Home provides a unique opportunity for the people in North Cumbria to get high quality health care support as close to their own homes as possible, by working together with the NHS. For specialist care, faster access to first-class services is provided through hospitals (NHS Cumbria, 2008). The Redbridge Council of the London Borough of Redbridge has a Cabinet consisting of ten cabinet members required to carry out various duties under portfolios such as adult social services, community safety, budget and performance, housing and health, planning and regeneration and others. The five main responsibilities of the Cabinet are in the areas of budget and policy framework, promotion of the economic, social or environmental well-being of the region, leading the search for best value with the help of Scrutiny Committees, towards continuous improvement in the delivery of services, to exercise all the powers and duties of the Council, and to implement the requirements of Social Inclusion and Equal Opportunities in the delivery of services (Redbridge Council, 2008). Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council The Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council has twelve departments, with its Social Services Department employing 2500 staff appointed at more than one hundred locations in the region. The council is a unitary authority. The policy of Wigan Council is decided upon after debates held by elected councillors who sit on the full council, and the executive cabinet, with the assistance of committees and the guidance of policy panels (Wigan Council, 2008).The various issues that the Council covers include health, affordable housing, asylum seekers, police resourcing, school meals, teenage pregnancy, youth substance misuse, and several others. Select committees undertake a series of reviews of work done on the above issues and submit a final report to the Overview and Scrutiny Committee (Wigan Council, 2008). Chorley Borough Council This is a district authority that provides many public services for residents, businesses and visitors. In the local government, Chorley is regarded as a "two-tier" area, that is where district or borough councils work together with Lancashire County Council, to provide services on
Political Effects of WWI - Research Paper Example They were Germany and Austria-Hungary (in 1918), Ottoman Empire (in 1922) and Russia (in 1917) (Mintz). Germany was recognized by Allied Powers as a country which launched WW1 and thus, was deprived of its overseas territories, and territories were retroceded to France in order to remain a unified German country (Effect of World War). Austria-Hungary, where the WW1 had nominally started from, was forced to cede Hungary and Balkan territories which later, proclaimed independent countries of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Czechoslovakia. Ex-empire was Ã¢â¬Å"trimmed down to primarily cover areas dominated by Austrian-German populationsÃ¢â¬ while giving up territorial parts for Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia (Effect of World War). The Ottoman Empire, which before WW1 put together the most of Middle East lands and Turkey, was falling down due to the loss in WW1, but also to inner revolts. After the war Turkey was occupied by Allied forces, Palestine and Mesopotamia were annexed by Britain and France (Effect of World War). Later, Ã¢â¬Å"colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast AsiaÃ¢â¬ caused formation of modern independent Arab states on ex-Ottoman territories (Mintz). Russian Empire was the only winner country among ceased empires, and the reason of its fall was Russian Civil War of 1917. In this way, by the end of WW1 Russian monarchy was overthrown (Effect of World War). Bolsheviks came to power and Baltic territories - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, - managed to proclaim independence. Along with Germany, Russia gave up a part of Empire for Poland. All other territories later constructed the USSR, headed by Vladimir Lenin (Myson). A new Russian political regime, Bolshevism and later, Communism, was established as a part of a general trend. Citizen of the countries, especially of ones which experienced the greatest losses in WW1, were disappointed in their governments, and thus, new regimes started to increase
Friday, October 18, 2019
For Writing Strategies - Annotated Bibliography Example They write to pass a significant message to both the writer and the reader. Several books and articles have been written that talk about how to write well I certain and different fields. In this book, the author defines the act of learning as a craft in which an individual will need tools for the process. He also says that learning does not require rules; hence, a learner should have freedom of choosing any suitable method in getting information. From ClarksÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view, he has the tools that will help any writer to become fluent and effective in his writing. Freeman advises the society to concentrate on children natural writing mode by studying them lively, and gracefully to improve their skills of learning. Tutors should put effort in teaching children good techniques for apt learning process. Teaching children from an early age about reading and writing in different areas helps children understand the real meaning of writing. Buckner, the author of the book advises writers to learn ways of building structural foundation that will improve skills in writing. Moreover, the structure he is referring is the genre that requires a person to comprehend the elements of various writers for comparison. This book has various methods on how to become a successful writer in different fields, and tips in this book are mostly for those who are upcoming writers. Since they do not have tips and strategies for successful writing, the book has offered a list of strategic tips for them to move from struggling writers to successful ones. In this book, there are tips which talk about writing in certain professionals, and in particular those involved in the field of medicine. Health professionals also need to have reading and writing techniques that will help them have a more advanced look and writing style. Social study is a field that is taught in different institutions and seeing that social a study is an important subject and must be taken into
To what extent is US policy in the Gulf region driven primarily by energy needs - Dissertation Example Retrieved from, http://schirachreport.com/index.php/2011/01/21/old-lobbies-prevent-new-energy-policies/ Teixeira, R, 2010. Public Opinion Snapshot: Public turns against offshore drilling. Centre for American progress, retrieved from, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/06/snapshot062810.html The Progress Report, 2010. Big giveaways to big Oil. Retrieved from, http://www.barbrastreisand.com/us/article/big-giveaways-big-oil Weiss, D. September 2010. GOP Ã¢â¬Å"Pledge to AmericaÃ¢â¬ is an oath to Big Oil- written by a former EXXon lobbysist. ClimateProgress. Retrieved from, http://climateprogress.org/2010/09/23/gop-pledge-to-america-big-oil-exxon-lobbyist-brian-wild/ Literature review summary: With approximately 70 % of the global oil reserves located in the Middle Eastern regions, which includes Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Iraq, these group of countries have formed the group of leading exporters of oil, especially in the post WWII era. Sampson, (1975) and Tanzer (1974), into their books gives us detailed insight into the pre WWII era when the oilfields were in the hands of the colonels British empire, and how slowly US took over after emerging as the chief power during the WWII. Tanzer in his book especially traces the rise of US as the main global power, the rise of strong oil companies and the formation of the famous US oil lobby, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s taking control over the European oil trade market. Kinzer, (2008) in his book traces the interference of US oil lobby in Iran internal politics during the 1950s to bring in the Shah of Iran (pro-US) as the head of the country, so that the oil fields would be effectively under the control of the US oil firms. Klare 2001, in his book traces the rise in strength of the US oil firms and the beginning of USAÃ¢â¬â¢s relentless drive to gain global energy supremacy. Cordesman (1999) gives us detailed insight into USÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-increasing oil consumption rate, and the governmentÃ¢â ¬â¢s unceasing drive to gain energy security, which drove the US oil companies and the government to attempt to bring all the oil rich countries under their control. These books show us how US created Saudi Arabia and established its control over the oilfields, while Iraq managed to give the western countries the slip by nationalising their oil fields, which finally led to the 2003 war with Iraq. Bennett, et al. (2007), Sepehri (2002), Kay (2001) in their articles give us an insight into the true nature of the 1991 and 2003 Iraq war and the actual reason behind this war. They show very clearly, as what were conditions that ultimately led to the 2003 war, and established clear links oil firms and the Bush regime. Phillip, 2003, very categorically shows in his paper the actual nature of the war and how the oil lobbyists stood to gain from the2003 war, while various news articles in BBC, Times, and CNN also shows strong link between US oil firms, US government, US foreign polices and the US-Iraq war in 2003. Articles by Lee (2005); Weiss (2010) and Paolo Schirach (2011) show the strong link that exists between USÃ¢â¬â¢s ineffective energy saving policies and the connection between government officials. These articles put up figures that reveal the huge donations made by the oil firms to the Republican party, and consequent failure on the part of the US government to draw up strong energy saving policies in the last 5 decades, after the end of the WWII, when the consumption of oil suddenly became high owing to the arrival of automobiles in the US
Art and Fashion - Surrealism - Essay Example The essay "Art and Fashion - Surrealism" concerns the surrealism in art and fashion. Schiaparelli together with Salvador Dali engaged in a symbiotic and collaborative partnership, in late 1930s. SchiaparelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Innovative surrealist dresses and accessories influenced by DaliÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings and sculptures. Schiaparelli experimented with the notion of clothing that dominates the human form, which compelled viewers to confront the primacy of fashion-as-art and the subordination of the female body. Indeed, Schiaparelli did not only transform the fashion industry but also smashed its foundations. SchiaparelliÃ¢â¬â¢s attraction to modernism in late 1920s and 1930s mirror in her predominant utilization of accessories, which played a critical function in her collection right from the beginning and she preferred to create a whole ensemble including jewelry, gloves, hats, and shoes. The innovations by Schiaparelli were a considerable liberation for women and attended by the introdu ction of vibrant and strong colors (exuberance and decoration), as well as themes in a collection. Schiaparelli effectively translated dominant Surrealism principles such as, an object never realizing the same function as its name or its image, into imaginative and provocative designs. In so doing, Schiaparelli generated Ã¢â¬Å"hard chicÃ¢â¬ fashions for unconventional-looking women. Surrealists were self-respecting artists in their own way and their works were at the center of challenging the patriarchal tradition of Surrealism. The female body was a vital tool for women Surrealists to generate a broad and varied expression of their sexuality, which cannot be limited to a single artistic medium. The Surrealists alluded to the notion of female sexuality laden with playfulness and humor.4 The contribution of Elsa Schiaparelli to the Surrealism movement is pertinent and rich as she was able to challenge conventional representations of femininity via playfulness.5 Elsa Schiaparelli was able to overcome the notion of women as objects of male consumption, and transformed the female body into a self-governing entity enriched by elegant sexual display. Elsa SchiaparelliÃ¢â¬â¢s designs based on key aspects such as sexuality, gender and fetish demonstrate that she generated garments, which were feminine and functional while at the same time preserving the Surrealist theme of the female anatomy as fetish.6 Discussion Schiaparelli combined the notion of classic design from the Romans and Greeks with the overriding need for freedom of movement. It was in the 1930s, which fashions designs started to be flamboyant as shoulders started to be a critical focus during the decade. During the 1930s, shoulders started to be a critical focus as heavily padded jackets for both men and women started to gain prominence. Schiaparelli can be regarded as a trendsetter in the 1930s and enjoyed a natural sensitivity towards fashion styling. Schiaparelli's legacy remains for her audaci ous improvisations that perfectly fitted with the surrealistic art dominating the period.7 Elsa Schiaparelli is well-known for her iconoclastic bravado and unlimited originality of her work. Schiaparelli contravened topical conventions within the