Sunday, December 29, 2019
The 14th amendment clearly says no state can deprive any person of life, liberty, or property. Why is it that the United States is still using this type of punishment that was used over Eighteenth Centuries ago? it should have been abolished. The death penalty is not effective at all and it does not show who Americans truly are. If the United States does not put a stop to the death penalty then we are just like any other country. The time is now to do something about this cruel and inhuman act Americans need to stand together and put a stop to the death penalty I have spent days on the database researching information on the death penalty. The statistics on the death penalty are quite interesting. I have researched and readÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦How about if someone buys drugs from someone and ends up dying from the drugs they bought . The person that sold the drugs is now going to be put to death. How is this fair is is both their faults, the person who sold the drugs should not be put death but should have some type of severe punishment. How about the fact that wrongful execution is irreversible, rich people with better lawyers escape the death penalty much more often than a poor convict without the financial means to hire lawyers does. This is not fair rich people can literally get away with murder while poor people have no other choice. The amount of money should not determine whether you die or live: this why life in prison is the best option for severe crimes. My biggest issue with the death penalty is the amount of people that end up being innocent. According to the Death Penalty Information Center 153 people have been exonerated from death row. The most recent one was April of 2017 which is crazy this continues to happen until present day no matter how good our technology maybe. Mr. Teleguz was accused of murder he was later found innocent: Weiner states that the prosecutor made explicit reference to this evidence in arguing that Mr. Teleguz was so dangerous that he needed to be put to death. Americans cannot always trust their own judgment the prosecutor was so quick to assume when he was completely wrong. Imagine if they were unable toShow MoreRelatedShould The Death Penalty Be Allowed? Essay1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageson the death penalty. The decision regarding either for the death penalty or against it. Should the death penalty be allowed or abolished? What is the death penalty? Death penalty has a couple of names such as capita l punishment or execution. However all these terms mean the same which means punishment by death. Crimes that may result in the death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offenses. The sentence that carries out a punishment in this manner is a death sentence (1). Death penaltyRead MoreShould The United States Allowed The Death Penalty?962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWith all the jails in the United States being overcrowded with convicts with serious crimes, and doing life without parole. I start to wonder what the impact would be if the United States allowed the death penalty to be used in all fifty states? First, I needed to view into other countries and examine why they still allow to have capital punishment in their country. Out of 196 countries in the world only 58 of those countries still embrace capital punishment. China is at the top of the list thatRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescalled problems with our system of justice is the death penalty. Capital punishment in this country seems to have its pros and cons. There are more issues and complications with being sentenced to death, while the positives are minuscule. The death penalty should not be allowed in the United States, and there are many reasons for this argument. The death penalty has caused controversy in the country since it became popular. 31 states use the death penalty and is also used by the military. Its use isRead MoreThe Article Use Of Death Penalty873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe article Use of Death Penalty by J.S. Mill brings up many arguments about why the death penalty should exist. Mill was strongly opposed to the idea of not having the death penalty and wrote this article when the British Parliament was going to ban it. He makes several arguments about the benefits and repercussions of having the death penalty. After reading them further, I believe that death penalty should be allowed, but there should be strict guidelines as to when it is used. There are manyRead MorePersuasive Essay On The Death Penalty1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeath Penalty The reason the death penalty should not be allowed is because it is just an easy way to get out of what the person has done. If that person does a crime they should do the time no matter what they did. No one should not be able to get an easier way out of what they have done by getting the death penalty. Jail time could be sentenced for the rest of his or her life based on the crime committed, and that way they can sit in the jail cell and really think about what they did insteadRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is A Humane Or Inhumane Form Of Justice1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis is where the death penalty issue comes into play. The death penalty has been around for thousands of years and, compared to the past, has changed dramatically. For example, people used to be publically tortured and then executed in front of anyone who wanted to see unlike today, the most common practice used is the lethal injection. Yet, many people wonder whether capital punishment is a humane or inhumane form of justice. So, should all states implement the death penalty to reduce violent crimesRead MoreLiterature Review on Death Penalty1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDo You Agree With The Death Penalty? Abstract The main focus on this literature review paper is going to be over Ã¢â¬Å"Do you agree with the death penalty?Ã¢â¬ . I gathered information by asking a series of questions of other individuals. Some of the questions I asked was, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think the death penalty is a deterrent from a crime?Ã¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"How should the death penalty be administered?Ã¢â¬ My goal is to find out how many people agree or disagree with the death penalty, and why. This will be a goodRead MorePaula Rodriguez Jimenez. Sociology 207. Professor James1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPaula Rodriguez Jimenez Sociology 207 Professor James Clift February 23, 2017 Death Penalty Historically, the death sentence was often handled with torture, and executions, except that it was done in public. In this century, the death penalty, execution or capital punishment, whatever youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to refer it as, is the result for committing capital crimes or capital offences and it is not in public. The death penalty has been practiced by most societies in the past, as a punishment for criminalsRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCapital Punishment Background: Capital punishment, or the death penalty, has existed for thousands of years. For as long as there has been organized society, the death penalty has existed in numerous cultures and civilizations. Throughout the years the methods have changed, but the use of capital punishment is becoming a pressing matter. Amnesty International reports that there are 140 countries worldwide that have abolished the death penalty, while over 50 countries still practice it. Over the pastRead MoreThe Flawed Nature Of Our Justice System Essay1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMany Americans believe the death penalty should be allowed in order to deter crime and bring justice. This belief often stems from the violent world they are shown every day in the news. Understandably they hear and see these violent crimes and think that extreme punishments must be given for extreme crimes. Despite this, 37% of Americans oppose the death penalty (Gallop). These people often argue that not only does capital punishment fail to solve the growing crime problem in the U.S., but that
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Can you be friends with someone you like? The dynamic of cross-sex friendships is an interesting area of study and one of which has little data. Moreover, research on this narrow subject is rather limited and comes from fairly old studies. The idea that men and women cannot be Ã¢â¬Ëjust friends,Ã¢â¬â¢ is due to the idea that there must be some aspect of physical and or romantic involved. As Reeder discussed traditional societal norms and expectations of male-female relationships have played a role in how we view cross-sex friendships today. The literature on cross-sex friendships has explored the role of attraction and the impact it has on the dynamics of cross-sex relationships. This literature review will investigate the role of attraction on cross-sex relationships and whether attraction hinders being friends with someone you like. Further, exploring the various common themes among the literature on attraction in cross-sex friendships: the definition of attraction is subjectiv e and there are different types of attraction, attraction tends to confuse the definition of the relationship, men perceive attraction more than women and lastly, attraction indeed is a challenge but not necessarily detrimental. It is hypothesized that attraction creates a significant challenge for those involved in a cross-sex relationship. Therefore, once attraction becomes an issue in the relationship, the possibility of the relationship lasting is questionable. The following five studies support theShow MoreRelatedGender Stereotypes And Gender Roles1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGender roles are defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"widely accepted societal expectations about how males and females should behaveÃ¢â¬ (Rathus, 2010). From gender roles, we, the people of society, are able to determine whether someone identifies as a male or a female. Both biological and social factors tend to determine what gender roles a person takes on. However, there are also gender stereotypes, which are Ã¢â¬Å" the fixed and oversimplified beliefs about the ways in which men and women ought to behaveÃ¢â¬ (Rathus, 2010).Read MoreAnalysis Of J. Donald O Meara2247 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages(1989) defines cross-sex friendship as a personal relationship between an unrelated man and woman who share no romantic feelings towards each other. He broadens his definition by allowing that a lack of romance does not necessarily entail a lack of sexuality or passion. This understanding allows for the possibility of sexual attraction, but not romantic attraction. Other definitions prohibit all forms of sexuality, passion, and romance, while still others allow them. In cross-sex friendships where sexualRead MoreThe Bleske-Rechek Studies . In 2001 And 2012, There Were1869 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBleske-Rechek about attraction in cross-sex relationships conducted in 2 parts. She collaborated with David Buss in the 2000 Study Ã¢â¬Å"Can Men and Women Be Just Friends?Ã¢â¬ . Bleske-Rechek and Buss focused on tw o key things: Sex differences in perceived benefits and costs of opposite sex friendships. (Bleske-Rechek, 2000). The researchers had 4 hypotheses, one being, Ã¢â¬Å" For men, more than for women, one function of opposite-sex friendship is to provide sexual access to the opposite sex.Ã¢â¬ The second one beingRead MoreCan Men And Women Really Be Just Friends?1943 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCan men and women really be just friends? Or will there always be some secret attraction between them? And then, how do our friendships with the opposite sex affect our romantic relationships? These are all important questions that you may have asked yourself when thinking about a friend of the opposite sex. Even in the media, there are countless examples in which a man and a woman, who began as friends, ultimately end up together. For example: Harry and Sally in When Harry Met Sally or Wallace andRead MoreThe Future Of Men, By Dave Hill2158 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages(Hill, 1997, p. 52) However, when con sidering same-sex versus cross-sex friendships of college students, men and women to this day still perform different identities, therefore, resulting in having more frequent stronger same-sex friendships than cross-sex friendships. Friendship ideals and norms considerably influence preference of friendships and the probability of having a strong intersectional friendship. Most men and women have different friendship ideals and norms from one another. It is imperativeRead MoreEssay about Relationships in Shakespeares As You Like It1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis this just an example of the female friendships of the time? This is a look at the different dynamics of relationships during the Renaissance. Those relationships of female friends, male bonding and homoeroticism in As You Like It. Ã During the Renaissance the friendship between females was very important. At this time in history there came a time when a woman was no longer considered attractive to a man. When she reaches this point the friendship that she forms between herself and anotherRead MoreIwa Akwa Rites Of Passage Essay1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesincorporation, where the minority group cross the threshold of the societal organization of the bigger society. Another one is the matrimonial assimilation, which arises as a result of intermarriage. Flowing from rites of passage, attachment styles and methods of cultivating or maintaining relationships develop. The attachment theory, which was initially focused on child- parent relationships, has been extended to adult relationships including romantic relationships, friendships and emotional affairs AttachmentRead MoreInterpersonal Attraction And Leadership On Employee Performance2499 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesABSTRACT This Review allows us to inspects the special properties of powers that military leaders use, interpersonal attraction of military members both on and off duty, and the effects of resilient leadership on employee and organizational results. This literature review serves two purposes The primary purpose is to examine the communication and organizational literature on power in order to demonstrate how numerous uses and forms of power influence employee opinions of those who lead them. Read MoreAttraction in Social Psychology2034 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAttraction in Social Psychology PSY 326 Introduction: Attraction in Social Psychology is one of the key areas where there is still research going on to understand what are the various elements in a human that makes him/her to behave in a specific manner how these variations are processed by the brain. The importance of this research paper is mainly to explain the basic psychological functions that are mainly concerned with the element of Ã¢â¬ËattractionÃ¢â¬â¢ in Psychology to analyze the statisticalRead MoreFriendship : A Great Deal Of Similarities Essay1950 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLong lasting friendships are those of friends with similarities. People who are well-established friends exhibit a great deal of similarities in behaviors and attitudes. How important is similarity in friendship Long lasting friendships are those of friends with similarities. People who are well-established friends exhibit a great deal of similarities in behaviors and attitudes. According to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s classic formulation, perfect friendship is of those who are similar and good in their goodness
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Reviewing the ethical dilemmas on this topic listed earlier, those with some type of religious background will most likely have a harder time accepting this new area of scientific development. Whereas, those who do not involve religious beliefs in their view point may see CRISPR as a revolutionary scientific discovery that will significantly benefit the greater good. Allowing CRISPR to be further research, and hopefully one day used, can greatly impact billions of people in such an amazing way. Living with an incurable disease or having the potential to develop one later on in life can be detrimental to not only the individual, but the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Eliminating terminal genetic diseases will not only relieve people of pain andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Is it fair for the rest of humanity to use science and technology in such a way that tests Christianity as a whole? Is it possible to raise the question that is technology can make something good it can also create th e opposite? Imagine a society of humans genetically altered to generate evil rather than good. There really is only one benefit to any type of modification to any human embryo, and that is to help enhance the health and well-being against debilitating genetic diseases. The Lord gave many the wisdom to create lifesaving procedures and cures which have been used throughout time. Genetic testing may soon become the next blessing bestowed upon civilization. However, this type of scientific plotting must be approached with much skepticism until proven worthy enough to make a real impact on societyÃ¢â¬â¢s future as a whole. Christians should continue to remain a prevalent force in this discussion and hold societyÃ¢â¬â¢s fading morality accountable before leaping into the realm of no return. As stated earlier, there are many ethical concerns that are brought up when looking at this topic; because, the area of unknown is so large. Those taking a more religious standpoint on this topic can still have different viewsShow MoreRelatedThe Ethical Dilemma Of The United States2001 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe 44th president of the United States, Barack Obama, granted clemency to 248 drug offense convicted felons with 61 of those being recently added to the release list. Over 9,115 inmates have met qualifications and have petitioned for clemency as well. President Obama has recently expressed that he is making his focus on reforming the Criminal Justice system. He has made clear vocally through many press conferences that he does not believe that these non-violent drug offenders, some having life sentencesRead MoreThe Ethical Dilemma Of The United States1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEthical Dilemma Paper name CJA 324 date InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s name An ethical dilemma can be characterized as a set of circumstances where oneÃ¢â¬â¢s typical guiding moral influences clash in such a way that any possible conclusion will be perceived unfavorably. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, healthcare professionals can expect to be increasingly confronted with and play key roles in the resolution of ethical dilemmas. This paper serves to explore, in detail, an ethical dilemma relating to civil confinement and the implicationsRead MoreEthical Dilemmas Of The United States1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere are many ethical dilemmas that occur daily in our hospitals across the world. Not everyone agrees with standards and policies that are required in hospitals or even with the law. If not everyone obeys the law, ethical cases form. In Springfield, Missouri, a holistic nurse got fired for fighting against Cox South hospital policies. Carla Brock has been a nurse at Cox South hospital and not only refused the flu shot, but also refused to wear a mask. She refused due to religious beliefs,Read MoreEthical Dilemma Of The United States Army Aviation Branch1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe essay identifies an ethical dilemma in the United States Army Aviation Branch. It seeks to identify the root cause of the problem using the ethical lenses of rules, outcomes, and virtue provide by the Center for the Army Profession and Ethic. Modern Army Leaders face an ethical dilemma, specifically in low-density Military Occupational Specialties, of completing the mission and enforcing the standards of Army Regulation 600-9. Units deploying or conducting critical training need Soldiers orRead MoreEffective Leadership Skills During An Ethical Dilemma1464 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEffective Leadership Skills during an Ethical Dilemma The purpose of this paper is to introduce ethical frameworks that can help solve an ethical dilemma. I will give an example of ethical issues encountered in a jail setting and an ethical dilemma that I experienced as a result of these ethical issues. I will analyze the moral, ethical, and legal implications that I used in this ethical dilemma. Furthermore, I will explain my leadership role as a patient advocate during this particular moral issueRead MoreOrgan Supply Vs Organ Demand : Ethical Issues That Arise1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKirubel Tesema Debra Berry English 102-1417 23 June 2015 Organ Supply vs Organ Demand: Ethical Issues that arise Organ donation has the power to change a life ending incident into a life giving one. Throughout the United States many patients are suffering due to the lack of a vital organ, because there is more demand than supply of organs, many patients die without ever receiving one. Although organ donation saves many lives, there have been questions in regards to ethics that surround it. PeopleRead MoreMovie Reveiw1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesissues in society. These moral issues will create legal dilemma. Not only create dilemmas, also questions of the United States Navy are raised. The questions occur because of a scandal that hurts the reputation of the United States Navy. This courtroom thriller stars Tom Cruise, Kevin Bacon, Cuba Gooding Jr, Demi Moore, and Jack Nicholson. Each actor plays a significant part for their character. The characters in A Few Good Men face moral dilemmas. Lt Kaffe is played by Tom Cruise; he is a young lawyerRead MoreEthics and Live Tissue Training1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Ethical Dilemma of Live Tissue Training in the Military Environment By Aaron Smith 22 September 2012 Thesis: Over the past 11 years to date, the United States has endured almost 8000 casualties from two major conflicts (iCasualties.org, 2012). Although this number is staggering, we have also seen soldiers surviving injuries that were previously fatal (Philpott, 2005). This increase in survivability is largely due to the advancements in medical research and applied training. When itRead MoreThe Ethical Problems Of The Models Of Autonomy And Discipleship1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Ethical problems present conflicts of the models of autonomy and beneficence. Adolescents as well as minors present a particular complication, which is struggling with autonomy. Healthcare providers are torn between their own moral codes that may lack consistency in their actions and opinions. The prescription or act of seeking out contraception or birth control is taken as an example of a common ethical dilemma. According to Duvall, Ã¢â¬Å"Adolescence is a complicated period of emotionalRead MoreThe People : Ethics And Social Responsibility Essay1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA For this week Unit 7 written assignment, I choose to talk about Voluntary euthanasia. A brief history and ethical and unethical dilemma of this topic will also be looked into in this assignment. A physician or doctor that carried out an act of voluntary euthanasia (Mercy killing), brings about the death of an individual who is in a state of bad medical condition because he or she believes that the patient is better off dead than alive. Thus, the intention of the doctor
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
There is a story about me that my mother will tell to anyone who will listen especially those who mentions to her how dedicated or determine I am to something I believe in. The first time I heard her tell this story it was to my husband when he was complaining to her how much I talk about the children in my classroom; the second time I heard her telling the story to my youngest son when he was telling her how much he wished I would stop talking about the children in my classroom when I come home from work. This story is about how much I wanted to climb a tree that was in my grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s front yard, this was an oak tree that stood about ten feet tall with limbs that was very high and one particular limb that was low enough and strong enough for me to sit and swing on. I would watch my uncle climb to the middle of the tree almost every afternoon when I come home from school. I would always ask him could I climb up and he would always say I could not, with my mother and grandmot her echoing that same answer whenever I asked if I could climb Ã¢â¬Å"uncle JohnnyÃ¢â¬ tree. Whenever my uncle, mom, or grandmother would tell me to stay away from the tree I would always tell myself one day I am going to climb that tree. Whenever I would get the chance to be outside without anyone watching I would try to climb up the tree to where my Uncle would always climb and sit. It took me about three months to finally climb to the branch where my uncle would climb, when I finally made it I sat there,Show MoreRelated Father Of The Bride Essays546 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Father of the Bride nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The filmÃ ¡Ã ¦s name is Father of the Bride. It involves George Banks (Steven Martin), and Annie Banks (Kimberly Williams). The time period is in 1991. The technique of the filmmaker is very good, it tells the middle age peopleÃ ¡Ã ¦s thoughts and feelings. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The actors are believable in their roles. Steven Martin who acts as George Banks is outstanding in his role, he acts very well, so the audience knows his feelings, and feelsRead MoreMovie : All My Sons930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTITLE OF FILM: All My Sons A. Geographical location, including climate: The play takes place in the Midwest, somewhere in Ohio, United States of America. It is hot, since the characters are wearing dresses and short sleeves and most characters are sitting and standing outside, on the front lawn, for most scenes. This could mean that it is hot outside, and the characters are leaving the house might be hotter than outside. B. Date; year, season, time of day: Sometime after World War 2, aroundRead MoreA Day At School Today1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseyes. Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Erin said somberly. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you going to lock me up in your basement until I m big and fat, and then eat me, and then feed my bones to your dog?Ã¢â¬ asked Erin in a tone which almost made her sound like she had already accepted her fate. Ã¢â¬Å"Heavens, No!Ã¢â¬ Mr. Mckutchin laughed out boisterously. Ã¢â¬Å"Is that what all the kids are saying about me? Well, I guess itÃ¢â¬â¢s better than being a Nazi on the run who likes to torture people in his basement. I never quite found out who started thatRead MoreDescriptive Essay About Hawaii1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSeemingly, a group of islands arose from the ocean displaying their majestic volcanos and clear blue waters. My family and I were one year into planning this adventure, and I was finally arriving in Maui, Hawaii for the vacation of a lifetime. The moment we landed, I became anxious to get on a surf board as quickly as possible. I promptly asked my parents several questions about the rental car. My father, being a previous Hawaiian resident, quickly assured me to relax, we re on Hawaiian time now. WeRead MoreThe Color Purple By Alice Walker1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOctober 2014 RadaRada Alice Walker Alice Walker as a writer, artist, short story author, dissident and women s activist has constructed a well-known notoriety around the world. Her exceptionally acclaimed novel The Color Purple turned out in 1982, won her a Pulitzer Prize in 1983 and the American Book Award, the first African American lady to win these two grants. (Alice) Everyday Use is one of her famous and grand short stories in which she addresses the problem of African and Americans who were attemptingRead MoreEveryday Use, And Seamus Heaney s Digging1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUseÃ¢â¬ and Seamus HeaneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"DiggingÃ¢â¬ have a common central theme that is to show us how an individual breaks their family traditions and embrace a new way of life, and the consequences faced after that turnout. A very little to almost none is known about my family history because of the backwardness of the eastern culture as opposed to that of the west. Our forefathers are said to have been nomads all their lives searching pasturelands for their cattle and cultivating land for the subsistence farmingRead MoreWindshield Survey1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfor some institutions/agencies and school systems, and follow-up of populations (Stanhope, amp; Lancaster, 2012). I met the family that I chose for the windshield survey at my four year olds preschool class. Their son attends class with my daughter. We enjoy talking before class lets out. I have learned a lot about them and find their family interesting. They were gracious to let me in their home to observe their family unit. The mother of the four year old boy is divorced and her son isRead MoreMy Best Friend - Original Writing1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesleft with the empty night sky. I can t count how many nights I spent lying in my driveway staring at the stars. My best friend and I had made a habit of staying out too late laughing and crying until there was no light left. When I remember these times I always remember Abby s shoes. She and I used to prop our feet up against the bricks of my house and just talk about whatever came to mind. Her red converse next to my bare feet. Although, we fed off each other in a way because whenever one of usRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRemember it s a sin to kill a mockingbird. This astonishing statement which Atticus had said it to his daughter scout in one of their boring days expresses the story of the innocent people that Harper Lee introduced in her wonderful novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Maycomb, the sleepy town in the south of America, where poverty reaches most of the families from privilege families such as the Finches, to the African Americans such as the Robinson s. In this novel, Harper Lee paints a vivid pictureRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthree main conflicts arise throughout the story. The people of the town are extremely prejudice not only with race but with social class, also during the novel, the residents of Maycomb show an unfair bias towards people of a different races and social class, but guilt and innocence is the resolution of it all. Ignorance often leads to a poor perception of a specific group of people. Boo Radley, a creature whom the people of Maycomb know little about, is a prime example of this conflict. Ã¢â¬Å"Jem
Friday, December 13, 2019
VAK theory is widely recognised by teachers Ã¢â¬â particularly those who recommend accelerated learning techniques Ã¢â¬â but the idea that we receive information via different modes has been around considerably longer than that and can be traced back to the work of Grace Fernald (Ã¢â¬Å"Remedial Techniques in Basic School SubjectsÃ¢â¬ ) who promoted kinaesthetic learning techniques; Samuel OrtonÃ¢â¬â¢s work on dyslexia; Anna GillinghamÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent work on developing multisensory approaches; and the holistic educational philosophy of Maria Montessori. (WWW. brainboxx . We will write a custom essay sample on Learning Styles Ã¢â¬â VAK or any similar topic only for you Order Now co. k) We all learn in different styles itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a case of finding out what style suits the individual learner to get the best results out of them, for example if you were to teach a learner that is best suited to Kinaesthetic learning, by giving them just handouts and talking, they will lose concentration much quicker and wont absorb any of the information you are giving them, whereas if you keep them engaged by maybe doing something as simple as giving out the handouts or give a little demonstration of what their learning they will keep engaged therefore absorbing the information for longer. There are three types of learning styles, Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic. Someone that requires a Visual learning style would prefer to learn using drawing, sketches, handouts, charts etc. An Auditory learner would prefer to learn with the aid of listening and then answering questions about what they have just heard, stories (maybe of past experiences), anecdotes, puns etc. Whereas someone that learns in a Kinaesthetic way would learn in a much more hands on way by building things, taking something apart and re-building to see how it works, using their hands, being able to move around etc. When setting up your lesson plan you will have to cater for all three learning types and maybe you could already have an idea on how to get the best out of your group of learners that use all three types, for example: if you have a few Kinaesthetic learners in a group or discussion session you could keep them engaged by asking them to come up and give a demonstration, or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a workshop environment you could give a demonstration for all, whilst verbally explaining what youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing and achieving, therefore also catering for Visual and Auditory learners. The main thing is to keep the learners engaged. (As Geoff petty says in Teaching Today) it is better to have 80 per cent concentration on a moderately effective method than 10per cent on a supposedly brilliant one. How to cite Learning Styles Ã¢â¬â VAK, Essays
Monday, December 9, 2019
The relation between humans and genetic manipulation is older than we think. Humans have been manipulating the transfer of genetic information between organisms for over 10. 000 years. The first experiences were with cultivation of grains and domestication of animals. The facilities that these methods bring in order to keep having the necessary stuff for our survival make the humans improve their techniques. Now, with the advances of science, we have some sophisticated ways to make easier get the most wanted kinds of livestock and plants. Selective breeding and transgenesis are examples of popular (and successful) processes involving genetic manipulation in the current context. Transgenic cows Nowadays, with the many abilities of the science, techniques are improving livestock. One of them is the ability to engineer and altered DNA from organisms. These organisms are termed Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and may be modified one of 3 ways: by alteration of existing gene, by deletion of existing gene or by addition of foreign genetic material. The last one enables the GMO to express the trait coded by the new gene. These organisms are referred to as transgenic. The aims of transgenesis can be for specific economic traits or for disease models (animals genetically manipulated to exhibit disease symptoms so that effective treatment can be studied). The transgenic cows are an example of transgenic animals. As a transgenic animal, the transgenic cows have the extra gene (transgene) present in everyÃ cell, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s only expressed in mammary tissue, making the transgenes protein only found and extracted from the cowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk. In New Zealand, the AgResearch have been successfully producing transgenic cows that make modified milk or produce therapeutic proteins to treat human diseases. Process Making a transgenic cow is a multi step process. Scientists who produce transgenic cows use a range of techniques including DNA cloning, restriction enzymes, ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transformation, nuclear transfer and in vitro embryo production. In New Zealand, AgResearch have been doing diverse researches about transgenic cows. Now, with these, it is possible to simplify the technique to do transgenic cows in 7 steps: Step 1: Identification of trait First, the scientists make an analysis in order to solve problems and find the characteristics wanted in the transgenic animal. After decided the kind of livestock required, it is searched where itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to find the transgene and how to align it logically. Step 2: Sourcing the transgene The desired gene sequence is extracted from the source organismÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA. The scientists obtain the sequence from a genomic library, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a collection of cloned segments of DNA containing at least one copy of every gene from a particular organism. The DNA product contains the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s entire DNA sequence, thus it is the desired trait plus the rest of the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA. Step 3: Gene Isolation Once the gene has been indentified and located, the scientists need to remove the gene sequence from the rest of the DNA. With restriction enzymes, the DNA is cut leaving a bunch of pieces with varying lengths. One of which is the gene of interest. It will be with sticky ends in order to be easily glued back into a vector. This way, the transgene will have the specifically variant that is needed. Restriction Enzymes come from bacteria and are used as a defence mechanism. When viruses (or other bacteria) attack, bacteria kill them by cutting up in both strands of DNA, at a specific sequence, usually about 4-8 base pairs long. Step 4: Designing and constructing the gene After isolated, the transgene is made modifying parts of the gene. The gene construct is a unit of DNA that includes: A B C D A) A selectable marker gene: Usually anÃ antibioticÃ resistanceÃ gene. This is added in order to select cells that have successfully taken up the gene construct. B) A promoter sequence: A tissue-specificÃ promoterÃ sequence is used to correctly switched the start of expression from theÃ proteinÃ in cells with appropriate tissue, for example, mammary cells in lactating cows. C) The desired gene D) A terminal sequence: A terminal sequence is needed to signal the cellular machinery that the end of the gene sequence has been reached. It all is connected with a ligation enzyme and mixed. This product is incubated in the water bath at 16 degrees for half an hour. Then, the scientists use the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique that allows scientists to copy and multiply a piece of DNA millions of times. The DNA is heated to 98? C so that is separates into single strands and polymerase enzyme is added to synthesis new DNA strands from supplied nucleotides. Step 5: Transformation into bovine cells The gene construct is incorporated into theÃ genomeÃ of a cow cellÃ using a technique called transformation. Transformation involves the delivery of a transgene into the nucleus of a recipient cell and integration into a chromosome so it can be passed onto offspring. Since cows have billions of cells, it would be impossible to insert a copy of the transgene into every cell, so tissue culture techniques must be used. Tissue culture is the technique of obtaining samples of tissue, growing it outside the body without a scaffold, and reapplying it A bovine cell line is cultured in an incubator. During the transformation, holes are made in the cellÃ membraneÃ allowing the DNA to enter. The holes can be made by applying an electrical pulse or by adding chemicals to the cells. Once inside the cell, the gene construct may enter theÃ nucleus and incorporate into the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s genome. That can be done either by using an actual stimulus that interferes with the membrane and allows for a short time for the DNA to enter a cell or just by chemical reactions reagents that again interfere with a membrane that surrounds the cell and then allows temporarily for a DNA molecule to enter. The recipient genome is exposed to the transgenes in hopes that a few of the transgenes will actually be integrated into that recipient genome and then properly expressed. This is a rarely case and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the next step involves selection of cells expressing the transgene. There is also concern that transformation might indirectly after the expression of other genes because of the unpredictable integration of transgene resulting in a toxic phenotype. Transform a bovine cell line is necessary because inject the transgene directly into a cow will only change the somatic cells, and the aim is affect the gametes to pass onto the offspring. Step 6: Selecting for transgene positive cells To know if the gene has successfully incorporated, it is needed to screen the cells. The cells are transferred to a selective growth medium containing an antibiotic or chemical, depending on which selectable marker was used. After the antibiotic or chemical is added, the cells that havenÃ¢â¬â¢t taken up the transgene will die. The other will survive because they contain an antibiotic resistance gene, making them resistant. The survivors will divide and form a small colony of identical cells. Then, itÃ¢â¬â¢s involved Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to photocopier and runs off a whole lot of copies of the gene in order to visualize that the transgene is actually present. The two strands in the DNA double helix need to be separated in a denaturation, done by raising the temperature of the DNA solution. This causes the hydrogen bonds between the complementary DNA chains to break, and the two strands separate. Next, the temperature is lowered and an enzyme joins free DNA nucleotides together. The order in which these nucleotides are joined to the new strand is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in the original DNA strand which is being copied. The result is a double stranded DNA molecule which contains one newly made strand and one original strand. After, the newly created double helix is separated (by heating the solution) and the cycle is repeated. The cells are also tested by Southern Blotting, which includes DNA digestion, gel electrophoresis technique, blotting, probe labelling, hybridization washing and detection. To perform it, the bovine cell DNA is digested by restriction enzymes and run out on a gel. The DNA is denatured into single strand DNA and transferred to a piece of nylon membrane. Then a radioactive DNA probe is made containing the DNA sequence of the transgene of interest. The paper is rinsed with the probe, and if the probe is identical to any DNA sequence on the paper it will bind to it. Finally, the paper is exposed to X-ray film. A band or mark on the film indicates that the gene of interest is integrated into the bovine cell DNA. Step 7: Making a transgenic embryo using nuclear transfer and cloning Nuclear transfer is used to create a whole animal from a single transgenic bovine cell. The generation of a transgenic calf follows the same process as the generation of a cloned calf. Ovaries are collected from cows processed at the local abattoir. Eggs are removed from the ovaries and matured overnight in a special media. The nuclear material is then removed from the egg using a fine glass needle and a single cultured cell (carrying the transgene) is positioned against the cytoplasm of the egg (injection). The transgenic bovine cell is fused with a bovine oocyte (egg). An electrical pulse is applied to help fuse the cells. The reconstruct (egg + fused cell) is then chemically activated and placed into culture for development to begin. Once fused with the oocyte, the transgenic cellÃ¢â¬â¢s chromosomes are reprogrammed to direct development into an embryo. After 7 days, the transgenic embryo will become a blastocysts and will have about 150 cells, so they can be transferred into aÃ recipientÃ cow for further development to term. If the embryo develops to full term, after 9 months, the cow will give birth to a calf. To confirm that the calf is transgenic, scientists can check using: 1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Ã¢â¬â PCR can quickly establish whether the transgene is present or absent in the calfÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA. 2. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) Ã¢â¬â q-PCR is to quantify how many copies of the transgene have been incorporated into the genome of the cell line. The q-PCR machine is a standard PCR but with the incorporation of a fluorescent dye that shows the amplification of the DNA product live on screen as the reaction carries out. 3. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) Ã¢â¬â FISH is a technique in which include take a biopsy from the animal, grow up cells back into culture, arrest them at metaphase and prepare some slides with those cells. With the slides is possible to probe where the transgene is in the chromosomeÃ and visualize if it has integrated into more than one chromosome. 4. Analysing of protein expressed Ã¢â¬â When cows are two years old they may have their first calf, this way it is stimulated the lactation and milk production. At this point, the milk can be tested to determine whether transgenic proteins, like casein and myelin basic protein are present. Assuming the transgene has successfully integrated itself into the genome, it will be present in every cell of the animal that develops and will be passed on to following generations through regular sexual reproduction. Implications Interestingly, the creation of transgenic animals has resulted in a good turn of events. Transgenic technology holds great potential in many fields, including agriculture, medicine, and industry. The impact of transgenic animals reaches ecosystems, genetic biodiversity, health and survival of individuals, populations and evolution of populations. Some of the implications of the transgenic process are very important as: Impact over genetic biodiversity, health or survival of individuals and populations Improving livestock and animal health Transgenic technologies could be used to improve animal health by increasingÃ resistance to diseases. When technology using molecular biology was developed, it became possible to develop traits in animals in a shorter time and with more precision. In addition, scientists can improve the size of livestock genetically. Transgenesis can allow larger herds with specific traits. Improving food quality or making novel food products Improving the quantity or quality of the milk or meat from cows may be of value. For example, milk with extra casein requires less processing to make into cheese and will have increased calcium levels. AgResearchÃ¢â¬â¢s firstÃ transgenicÃ cows had extra bovine kappa casein genes inserted in theirÃ genome. This research proved to the scientists that transgenic technologies could be used to alter milk composition in cows. In the future, modified milk from transgenic cows could be used to benefit animal health, for example, by improving growth and survival of calves, prevent animal diseases, such as mastitis, make milk with human health benefits, assist milk processing into dairy products. Overseas milk or meat products from transgenic animals are not allowed to enter the animal or uman food supply in New Zealand. Creating therapeutic proteins Transgenic cows can be used as Ã¢â¬ËbiofactoriesÃ¢â¬â¢ to produce human therapeutic proteins. Therapeutic proteins are used to treat human diseases and they include hormones, antibodies, vaccines, growth factors and blood clotting factors. In June 2006, the first therapeuticÃ proteinÃ made in a transgenic animal was approved for use in Europe and the USA. ATrynÃ ®, a human antithrombin protein, is made in transgenic goats. The protein prevents blood clots in patients who donÃ¢â¬â¢t make their own version of this protein. Products such as insulin, growth hormone, and blood anti-clotting factors have already been obtained from the milk of transgenic cows too. Research is also underway to manufacture milk through transgenesis for treatment of debilitating diseases such as phenylketonuria (PKU), hereditary emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. The A. I. Virtanen Institute in Finland produced a calf with a gene that makes the substance that promotes the growth of red cells in humans. Scientists at AgResearch have generated transgenic cows that produce myelin basic protein (MBP) in their milk. MBP is part of the insulating layer that surrounds nerves. In patients with multiple sclerosis, this insulating layer is gradually destroyed, which prevents the nerves from communicating. Treatment with human MBP may help reduce symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Impact over ecosystems In New Zealand, to start a research as the transgenic cows by AgResearch, it is needed to follow strict guidelines for care and containment of the animals. TransgenicÃ cows are classed as new organisms and are regulated by the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act. The HSNO Act is overseen by the EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA provides rules and regulations for introducing any hazardous substances or new organisms to New Zealand. Before any research can be done, an application must be made toÃ the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA). EPA evaluates the benefits and risks of any research and decides whether the work can begin. Anyone can make a submission on an application, which can support it, oppose it or support some parts and oppose others. Applications to EPA can be viewed on the EPA website. Environmental impact ERMA may place restrictions or require certain standards to be followed before giving approval for transgenic research work. For example, the transgenic cows at AgResearch are kept in a special containment facility at Ruakura with restricted access and environmental monitoring. Beyond, transgenic animals cannot leave the facility and the farmers must follow strict rules for waste disposal. The animal containment facility is monitored by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) New Zealand. All waste materials from the transgenic cow facility must be disposed of on site. Milk is treated byÃ fermentation, then diluted and sprayed over the pasture. After consultation with local Maori, it was agreed that all animal carcases would be buried on site. Impact over society Ethical frameworks Ethics is a crucial part of the nature of biotechnology. Transgenic animals can contain genes that would not normally arise through natural genetic variation. In New Zealand, transgenic technologies are highly regulated, with all genetically modified animals being kept in containment. However, using or adapting an animal raises issues about animal welfare, the environment, human health and wellbeing, and society. This issue may be viewed differently by different stakeholder groups according to their cultural, spiritual or religious beliefs and values. As part of the HSNO Act, scientists need to consult with Maori at a local and national level through meetings orÃ hui. Together, they consider the risks and benefits an application may pose to MaoriÃ cultureÃ or traditional relationships with ancestral lands, water, sites,Ã wahi tapu, valuedÃ floraÃ andÃ faunaÃ or otherÃ taonga. The ethics thinking tool must be used before any decision is made: ConsequencesÃ Ã¢â¬â what are the benefits and risks? Rights and dutiesÃ Ã¢â¬â what rights need to be protected and who is responsible for this? AutonomyÃ Ã¢â¬â should individuals have the right to choose for themselves, or does one decision count for everyone? VirtueÃ Ã¢â¬â what is the Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ thing to do? Multiple perspectivesÃ Ã¢â¬â what perspectives do groups with other cultural, spiritual or religious views have? Ethical concerns must be addressed as the technology grows, including the issue of lab animal welfare. The research must consider all the factors and people involvement to this, never think in the individual but in the society. The future direction of transgenic research will be influenced by ongoing discussion and evaluation of ethical and societal issues that are raised. New Zealanders need to weigh up the risks and benefits associated with transgenic cows and decide what they consider to be acceptable. Selective breeding Selective breeding of animals is a selective mating to increase the possibility of obtaining certain characteristics in the animals in order to get better livestock. The type of mating selected depends on the goals. To produce the kinds of animal they want, breeders have to first understand the animal as aÃ species, then the animal as genetic individuals. Selective breeding use many techniques as outcrossing, linebreeding, inbreeding and hybrids. The more modern techniques involve a wide variety of laboratory methods, including embryo selection, artificial insemination, cloning and MOET. Traditional techniques: 1. Outcrossing Ã¢â¬â Mating two animals that are unrelated for at least 4 to 6Ã generations back is called an outcross. This method works best when the geneticÃ variation for a trait is high. 2. Linebreeding Ã¢â¬â Linebreeding involves mating related animals like half-brother/half-sister, cousins,Ã aunt/nephew,Ã and other more distant relationships. 3. Inbreeding Ã¢â¬â This breeding method involved mating directly related animals, like mother/son, father/daughter, and full brother/full sister (full siblings). This method is used generally to create uniformity and prepotency (the ability of this process to continue) and to force out latent weaknesses from the gene pool. . Hybrid Ã¢â¬â First generation cross between two animals that belong to different breeds. Hybrid is process that occurs in nature, particularly in plants. However, humans have learned how to manipulate the genes in a similar way using the same principles. With increased rate of mutations, offspring are selected that contain the genetic variation that suites the desired need. Hybrids contain a unique number of chromosomes when compared to distant relatives of similar genomes. The hybrids then carry traits of both species. 5. Composite Ã¢â¬â Two hybrids of same breed-combination bred back to each other for generations. Modern techniques: 1. Embryo Selection Ã¢â¬â Embryo Selection is used to select the best embryos according the livestock wanted. Embryo Selection is crucial in horticulture and agriculture. Sex Selection: Sometimes, one gender tends to be preferred for a specific purpose. Sex selection is vital for the production of offspring. a. Females are useful in commercial purposes eg) ju, dairy cows b. Males that are able to breed with many females to pass on desired traits; expensive if the cows are inseminated. 2. Embryo Manipulation Ã¢â¬â Embryo Manipulation takes place not long after fertilisation and beginning of the zygote process of mitosis (morula stage). The new cells formed are called blastomeres and they are totipotent from the 4 to 8 cell stage. In this time, scientist can manipulate the embryo in order to get some desired characteristics. 3. Artificial Insemination Ã¢â¬â Artificial insemination is the artificial introduction of semen from a male with desirable traits into females of the species to produce pregnancy, and is useful because a far larger number of offspring can be produced than would be possible if the animals were traditionally bred. . Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) Ã¢â¬â MOET is the production of multiple embryos from a female with desirable traits, which are then implanted in the wombs of other females of the same species. 5. Cloning Ã¢â¬â Cloning, an asexual method of reproduction, produces an individual with the same genetic material (DNA) as another individual. Animals have been cloned by three processes: embryo splitting, blastomere dispersal, and nuclear transfer. Nuclear transfer is most common and involves enucleating an ovum, or egg, with all the genetic material removed. Implications Selective breeding programmes have resulted in higher yields and better disease resistance. Ultimately, breeding goals are dictated by market demand; however, it is not easy to predict what consumers will want several years in advance. Although it is extremely effective, there are disadvantages to this method. One of these is that for animal breeding to be performed productively, a number of animals must be involved in the process. Another problem is that undesirable traits can also mistakenly be selected for. For this reason, too much inbreeding will produce sickly or unproductive stock, and at times it is useful to breed two entirely different strains with each other. The resulting offspring are usually extremely healthy; this is referred to as hybrid vigor. Usually hybrid vigor is only expressed for a generation or two, but crossbreeding is still a very effective means to combat some of the disadvantages of inbreeding. Another practical disadvantage to selective inbreeding is that the DNA of the parents is altered during the production of eggs and sperm. In order to make eggs and sperm, which are called gametes, a special kind ofÃ cell divisionÃ occurs calledÃ meiosis, in which cells divide so that each one has half the normal number of chromosomes (in humans, each sperm and egg contains 23 chromosomes). Before this division occurs, the two pairs of chromosomes wrap around each other, and a phenomenon known as crossing over takes place in which sections of one chromosome will be exchanged with sections of the other chromosome so that new combinations are generated. The problem with crossing over is that some unexpected results can occur. For instance, the offspring of a bull homozygous for two recessive but desirable traits and a cow with normal genes will all have one copy of each recessive gene. But when these offspring produce gametes, one recessive gene may migrate to a different chromosome, so that the two traits no longer appear in oneÃ gamete. Since most genes work in complicity with others to produce a certain trait, this can make the process of animal breeding very slow, and it requires many generations before the desired traits are obtainedÃ¢â¬âif ever. Conclusion The evolution of scientific methods has been contributed lot through time. In the agricultural and horticultural environment, the transgenic and selective breeding methods have been improved livestock and better animal/plant health. Beyond, the researchers can contribute in fields such as medic and industrial. The techniques in both processes stimulate knowledge and improve the technology, resulting in employment and better conditions to the future. However, transgenesis and selective breading involve the manipulation of the natural order, bringing a polemic topic.
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Marketing Managementfor Structural Analysis. Answer: Introduction TargetMarkets to Pursue Looking good and pushing the boundaries. Looking good market segment comprises of the population that loves fitness and hence each is likely to consume this product more than any other individual in the other segments. Besides, looking good is one of the highest market segment in the population. On the other hand, pushing the boundaries segment is like to have loyal customers. Despite that the market segment is small it is likely to be the frequent consumer of the product. According to Meyers (2015), the critical aspect to consider in marketing is the retention of the existing customers. Appeals,Messages, and Sources to use Name of Segment Appeals and Messages Best Source/s Looking Good Attraction want to look like this? Real customer Pushing the Boundaries Rational become fitter/faster Actors (fit looking people) Media vehicles to use Billboards: Appealing messages on the billboards will be more fascinating(Metaxas, 2015). Internet ads Local cinema advertising Customer referral incentives Why is this Plan a Good Approach? Both good looking and push the boundaries market segments will frequently be a consumer of the fitness service. Additionally, the appeal messages and the sources capture the attention of the target market. Finally, usage billboards, internet ads, local cinema advertising and customer referrals will communicate the intended message well as it can include the images portraying the effects of the product. References Metaxas, T. (2015). Market Research and Target Market Segmentation in Place Marketing Procedure: A Structural Analysis. Discussion Paper Series, 11(3), 47-60. Meyers, Y. J. (2015). Target marketing and the product: categorizing products to understand the resulting marketing communication outcome measures. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 1-8.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Old Man In The Sea AUTHOR The Old Man and the Sea was written by Ernest Hemingway who was born July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. He later died of suicide in 1961 in Idaho. This book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953, and Hemingway won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1954. He was an ambulance driver in World War I and wrote many major works. CHARACTERS Santiago, the main character, was a wise old Cuban fisherman who was very experienced in the ways of the sea. Despite his age he had young eyes and great determination to catch the Marlin. Santiago had to survive much pain and loneliness to capture the Marlin The Marlin was eighteen feet long and purple with stripes on his side. This fish eventually became Santiago's brother. It demonstrated its great skill and mobility by fighting for three days before being caught. Manolin, a young boy, admired and learned how to fish from Santiago. The boy was caring towards the old man and refused to allow Santiago to fish alone again. PLOT Santiago had gone eighty-four days without catching a fish, and Manolin's family refused to allow the boy to fish with the old man because they believed that he had bad luck. The night before the old man was going to fish, the boy and the man talked baseball, which they both loved. The next day Santiago caught a big marlin which started to drag the boat. The fish continued to swim and did not seem to lose much energy. While it took three days for the old man to catch the marlin, he had to catch other fish for nourishment. Santiago's hands were cut and bruised from the line; his back was extremely sore, and he was acting strangely, talking and arguing with himself. Then on the way back to the village, sharks ate the marlin despite the old man's trying everything to stop them. After the long trip home, Santiago was exhausted but was considered a hero by the village people after they measured the length of the fish's skeleton. The boy was worried and promised to always go with Santiago from then on. SETTING This book takes place in Cuba in the 1940's. The story continues over the course of three days. Distinguishing Characteristics Hemingway's style of writing is direct and terse. He challenges the reader to think about human emotions and courage. Book Reports