Friday, January 31, 2020
Home-Style Cookies Essay In this case study, the focus revolves around the Lew Mark Baking Company. The Lew-Mark Baking Company according to the case study is from a small town in western New York. Lew-mark Baking company operates in New York and New Jersey. It employs around 200 workers in a mainly blue collar, informal atmosphere. In my paper, I will answer several questions about operations for this company The Cookie Production Process When describing the cookie production process for Lew-mark baking, it is best described as using the batch processing system. The batch processing system can best be described as the execution of a series of programs (jobs) on a computer without human interaction. Ã¢â¬Å"Batch Processing is used when a moderate value of goods or services is desired, and it can handle a moderate variety of products and servicesÃ¢â¬ (Stevenson 2009, P 239). This method helps with quantity management because Lew mark only makes cookies according to demand. What are two ways that the company has increased productivity? Why did increasing the length of the ovens result in a faster output? One obvious way the company is increasing productivity is that it only makes cookies according to the demand. What ever order it receives from its distributor is what is made in the factory. This ensures that productivity is centered on the demand and time is not wasted baking products that might or might not sell. This is return, makes productivity quicker and more efficient. As mentioned above, the Batch processing system is a huge contributor to increasing productivity. Having two ovens also helps in speeding up productivity. Lengthen the ovens by 25 feet, increased the rate of production by allowing more cookies to be baked at the same time. Automating the Packing Although automating the packing of the cookies in normally a quicker and more efficient way of doing business, it is my opinion the Lew-mark baking Company is doing the right thing by employing local workers to do this job. It is vitally important to create good relationship within the community. This allows a company to have a stake in the community and thus foster good relationships with the local government, political officials and members of the community. Fostering these types of relationships can also be beneficial when it comes to future plans or expansions. Plus, the company has an obligation to the workers once they are employed with the company. As longs as profits and the bottom line are healthy, it should keep its commitment to the community. This would hold true in a small or large community. It is the obligation of industry to keep workforce engagement in tact. As long as industry is alive, some sort of human engagement is needed. What factors cause Lew-mark to carry minimal amounts of certain inventories? What benefits results from this policy? Obviously, the shelf life of perishables (cookies) keeps companies like Lew-Mark from storing big quantities of cookies in the warehouse. The longer these cookies stay in the warehouse, the lower the possibility of being sold. In reading the text, StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s goes into great detail about the Single Period Model of Inventory Management. This Model is used for ordering perishables and other items with limited useful life. It is interesting how Lew mark keeps a smaller inventory of labels. Their rationale is that the FDA label requirements change frequently and they do not wan to get stuck with labels they cannot use. Most of their inventory is ordered in small silos two or three times a week to save on ordering cost. This type of inventory control favors smaller businesses as long as they can forecast their production with accuracy. This allows Lew-mark to only buy what they use and use what they buy. If production decreases, they buy less. If production increases, they buy more. In the case of Lew-Mark Baking Company, this type of inventory control makes sense. Quality There are advantageous and disadvantages in using a non additive and non preservative approach to selling products. The advantage is that you can target a more health conscious audience to your product. With all the health disparities facing the country, you can carve out a specific audience for these types of products. On the flip side, you have to race against the clock because these non additives and non preservative shorten the life of these perishable items. In other words, your selling approach needs to be more progressive in its nature Conclusion In conclusion, the Lew-Mark Baking Company has an excellent product available to its consumers. Its pitch to sell non additive non preservative cookies targets and audience that is looking for this type of product. Because of its size, Lew-mark capitalizes in efficiency by using very tight inventory controls and production processes that keeps the company financially conscious and fiscally responsible. Its sensitivity to the community also brings morale responsibility that is noted by many members of the community and abroad. The Companies Strategy is to create a product that is desirable to the consumer and delivering that product in a way that makes the best business sense to its owners. As a consumer, I prefer quality in the form of a soft cookie. Understanding that the cookie has non and non preservatives is a plus.
Monday, January 27, 2020
The Definition of a Trademark and Goodwill INTRODUCTION Definition of trademark Any company has the right to take legal action if enough evidence is provided to the court. The company that feels infringed can take legal action supported by the principles of intellectual property rights. Company X has the rights to take legal action against company Y on the basis of fundamental principles under intellectual property rights. Company X is a manufacturer of cool soft for men under the trade mark as cool soft as the first company to register under such a distinctive name. Company Y also starts to manufacture real soft for men under the trade mark real soft after company X is already trading. Trade mark by Yu,(2007), is defined as any word, name, symbol or device or any combination thereof used by a person to identify and distinguish his or her goods from these manufactured or sold by others and to indicate the source of the goods. In the case of laximikant Patel vs Chetan bhat shah, it was held that the trade the definition of trade mark is very wide and means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguish the goods and services of one person from those of others. In this case company X has come up with a distinctive name as it trademark as the source to all consumers or as a source of such a product. Company X coming up with a name trade mark that is totally different from any other company. Furthermore, what is necessary is the connection between the mark used in relation to the goods and the person claiming a right to use the same. Recently in the case of Jaleel Associates vs Hotel sugar, it was held that if a name used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating a course of trade between goods and services and some person having the right to use such name whether with or without any indication of the identity of that person such name is a trademark. In this case, company X under the trademark cool soft is able to portray a certain that of trade and under such a trade, people are able to identify the trade or goods or services that are being provided and this becomes a trademark. On the other hand company Y does not come up with something different but follow in the same trade as company X which has already have the trade mark because of being able to make easy identification to customers on goods or services being provided in that particular market. In addition, company X has also registered the trade mark cool soft. Under the Trade Mark Act section 14(1) provides that a mark will only be registered as a trade mark if it contains or consists of a word or words having no direct reference to the character or quality of the goods and not geographical name or surname. In this case company YÃ¢â¬â¢s trade mark real soft has a direct reference to the trade mark of company X which is prohibited under the Trade Mark Act. Goodwill The goodwill of company X is portrayed were the cool soft has been marketed over a period of time, whilst company Y has just started manufacturing. Goodwill is ability to attract customers and potential customers to do business with the owner. Company X has developed goodwill for a long period of time. Customers have been buying their products, and this has made the company to amass for revenue, maintaining a bigger market share and brand loyalty. Unlike company Y who are just new to the business and has not been tested in the industry for a longer period. In the case of Hotel Capriani vs Cipriani (Grosvenor street) 2010, it was held that the claimant succeeded in both action sued which were trademark infringement and passing off. Company X has the right to take such legal actions. The aspect of marketing the product for a long period of time has made company X to be an established company, trusted by many people and therefore the sufficient enough to take legal action. In the case of Jules Rimet vs the football Association, it was held that after considering the claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s evidence which included references to the mascot in the press from time to time concluded that there was sufficient residual goodwill for action of passing of. Apart from this, in the case of Reckitt and Coleman products Ltd vs Borden Inc, it was held that the existence of the claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s extensive and exclusive goodwill built over the years, a misrepresentation as to the goods or services offered by the defendant and damage to the claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill as a result of the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s misrepresentation amounted to passing off. Company X has built a reputation over the years and company Y by producing a product similar has somehow destabilize the sales, customers and market share of company X which in the case above amounts to passing off. Passing off is an attempt by one trader taking advantage of the goodwill developed by another to the detriment of the trader. Company X has marketed over a period of time and company Y has just started manufacturing similar products like the ones that company X is manufacturing. In a similar case Erven Warnink Bv vs J Townsend Sons Ltd (1979), it was held that not only damage due to lost sales but damage to reputation by being associated with inferior product amounted to passing off. Townsend was liable for passing off their goods as those of Warnink and the court applied the test for passing off which includes and any situation where misrepresentation is likely to injure the claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill. There was no trademark infringement but passing off. In order for one to claim passing off, there must be elements of the following aspects: There must be a goodwill or reputation attached to the goods or services of the claimant. In this case company X has marketed its product over a long period of time than company Y which has just started marketing same products. By marketing for a long period of time, company X has built a good relationship with customers. Sales have dropped due to company Y producing the same kind of product thus driving away customers to buy the other product and reducing the profitability of company X. This gives the right for company X to take legal action against company Y as this amounts to passing off. In the case of Buckley LJ H P Bulmer Limited vs Bollinger SA (1978), the court held that a man who engages in commercial activities may acquire a valuable reputation in respects of the goods in which he deals, or of the services which he performs or his business as an entity. The law regards such a reputation as an incorporeal piece of property, the integrity of which the owner is entitled to protect. So in this case, company X has built a reputation by marketing for a long period of time and by such the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s image, property and reputation are entitled to be protected. For passing of to be established there must be an element of misrepresentation. This element of misrepresentation is shown by company Y when manufacturing the products with similar packaging in white, dark blue and green colors as the ones that company X has manufactured for a long period of time. Misrepresentation is a false description made consciously or unconsciously through the use of a mark, trade name or get-up (brand name, trade description, individual features of labelling or packaging) with which the goods of the claimant are associated and which is likely to mislead the sensible members of the public. 3.0 Misrepresentation In the case of Arsenal Football Club Plc vs Reed (2001), it was held that the disclaimer was sufficient enough to prevent misrepresentation which is a necessary ingredient for passing off. The customers had not been deceived into buying and there was no real likelihood of confusion. But in this case company Y has labelled its product similarly to the ones of company X thus creating confusion as customers would not be able to differentiate from the original product hence deceiving customers. The deception as a result of a misrepresentation is an essential ingredient for a claim in passing off. In the case of BP Amoco Plc vs John Kelly Ltd (2005), it was held that deception or its likelihood lies at the heart of the tort of passing off. If the customer can see sufficiently clearly when he gets close to the station that the product sold is not that of Bp, he does not buy the petrol under the mistaken impression that he is getting Bp petrol. But in this case it is hard for a customer to clearly see the difference as the packaging of company X is white, dark blue and green, similarly to the one that company Y has started manufacturing. The packaging looks the same and this causes deception as company Y would be selling its product to customers who might buy on the essence that the product they are buying is for company X which has been manufacturing the product for a long period of time. By doing so company Y is deceiving customers into buying a product which is not the actual known product in the market which is manufactured by company X. This still amounts to passing off as company X is entitled to take legal actions under such circumstances. In the case of Combee international v Scholl (1975), the plaintiff manufactured insoles called odox heaters which contained activated charcoal. The defendant who was a well-known manufacturer of footwear also produced odox heaters. These were packaged in the same way. It was held that an injunction was granted on the basis that there was misrepresentation as the origin of the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s product which was inferior. So in the same way company X can take legal actions against company Y because company Y is packing in the same way as the product of company Y is sold. Furthermore in the case of Wilkinson Sword Ltd vs Cripps Lee, the court held that the plaintiff had indeed have a reasonable cause of action. Meaning company X has the right to take legal actions. Damage to good wil Damage to good will would be a loss of reputation or control over reputation, exposure to litigation or erosion of the mark. Company Y has just started making similar goods as the ones made by company X. This has resulted in some of the customers buying from company Y thus reducing the gross profit for company X because the two companies share customers. In the case of AnnabelÃ¢â¬â¢s (Berkley Square Ltd vs G Shock (AnnabelÃ¢â¬â¢s Escort Agency), 1972, it was held that there a was sufficient association between what the public would consider the field of activity in which both business conducted
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Immigration within and into Europe has increased in recent years, with local populations' anxieties raised(Pilcher 2010, p445). I will look at the socio-cultural challenges which immigration introduces. These include the real and perceived impacts on native populations, and the policy responses which stem from the issues. Next, economic well-being is an aspect of the immigration question that will be examined. I will consider soem of the various problems which are encountered in tackling this subject. While attempts to reach conclusions of the de facto effects of immigration in terms of the economies are not made, considering the arguments made may help in gauging the extent of the challenge that immigration poses. I will also examine some of the structural changes which immigration makes in the political sphere, with electoral and representative politics being affected. With constituencies changing significantly throughout several countries, the resultant shifts in terms of policy and governance are concerns which need to be taken seriously. Social and Cultural Challenges The social and cultural tensions which arise from hosting immigrant communities are often expressed as a failure to integrate or assimilate immigrants into society. Yet cleavages can be amplified due to the liberal and egalitarian doctrines which underpin European states. Provisions have to be made for immigrant citizens which may cause resentment in the existing population as a consequence of competition for diminishing resources, as well as the overarching factor of cultural stability(Lahav 2004, p1167). Yet this difficulty may be eased by the inclusion of non-EU immigrants in a reformulation of the European identity. If, as Diez & Whitman(2002) arg... ...ect individuals on the micro-level but research suggests that there are context-dependent issues in societies. This means that the challenges which immigration pose cannot be met by assuming that macro-economic scenarios fit different solutions. Countries from both ends of the spectrum face problems with managing immigration and its consequences on different strata within the existing society. Again, the challenge here is one in which the political leaders and mass media are still themselves unsure of. If the effects of immigration on the economy are to be ascertained, then the implementation of appropriate policies needs to be pursued without deference to political and ideological pressures. The biggest challenge facing the states of Europe regarding immigration is to pinpoint the causes of insecurity, in both the immigrant and native communities, and address them.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Plagues and Epidemics Humans are remarkably good at finding a religious scapegoat for their problems. There has always been someone to blame for the difficulties we face in life, such as war, famine, and more relevant, disease. Hitler blames the Jews for economical woes in a corrupt Germany long after the Romans held the Christians responsible for everything wrong in a crumbling, has-been empire. In the fourteenth century, when Plague struck Europe, it was blamed on "Ã¢â¬ ¦ unfavorable astrological combinations or malignant atmospheresÃ¢â¬ ¦" (handout p2), and even "Ã¢â¬ ¦deliberate combination by witches, Moslems (an idea proposed by Christians), Christians (proposed by Moslems) and Jews (proposed by both groups)." (H p2) The point is, someone was to blame even when the obvious reasons, flea ridden rats, were laying dead on the streets. As time progressed to the twentieth century, there have been few if any exceptions made to this phenomena. In the case of Oran, the people raced to find a culprit for the sudden invasion of their town, which became the unrepentant man. This is one of CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ major themes; The way a society deals with an epidemic is to blame it one someone else. Twenty years ago, when AIDS emerged in the US, homosexual men became the target of harsh and flagrant discrimination, and even today are still held accountable by some beliefs. While we may no longer lynch in the nineties, we do accuse innocent groups, like the gay male population, for the birth and explosion of AIDS in our society. Given, there are some differences between each respective situation, but there are striking similarities that cannot be ignored. As the Plague invaded the town of Oran, the people quarantined within its walls began to look to their leaders for answers. Most likely these people had trouble believing that such an awful thing was happening to them, and needed someone to point the finger at. In the meantime, Father Paneloux was preparing a speech to answer the questions and fears that surrounded him, and probably vexed him as well. The truth is, his speech was as much therapeutic as it was didactic, and in winning the opinion of the public he could calm his own fears. " If today the plague is in your midst, that is because the hour has struck for taking thought. The just man need have no fear, but the evildoer has good cause to tremble." (p95) Paneloux is passing the blame, but in a very intriguing way. "You believed some brief formalities, some bendings of the knee, would recompense Him well enough for you criminal indifference.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ã I chose as my community El Dorado County in the foothills of Northern California. I live in this community. We are a very healthy and active community with a large retirement group. I will go through the four assessments next. The Population Economic Status Assessment shows our population to be around 181,000. We are made up of 80% white Christian, with the next largest ethnic group being about 15% Mexican. The average household income is around $70,000 with 7.9% of people being at or below the poverty level. The Mexican population makes up the biggest percentage of the poor. El Dorado CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s median household income has been higher than the state average since 2000, indicating that its residents have more spending power than the average Californian (El Dorado Co). The unemployment rate is 11.8%. El Dorado CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s unemployment rate has been consistently lower than the California average since 1990. At any given time, there are 600+ homeless people in this community. Around 9000 people receive food stamps & another 3000 receive cash aid. On an average, we have much fewer people on public assistance than the national average. According to the information I gathered in the Cultural Assessment Tool, the population in this community has slightly more females than males which is very typical in these rural areas. There are 80% white people living here with about a 15% Mexican population (El Dorado Co). 27% of the populous are affiliated with a church, mostly Catholic Christian, compared to the 50% in the USA (Religions). About 85% of the people are covered by health insurance, which is very high compared to the rest of California. Cancer is the leading cause of death, with heart disease being second. The birth rate is 10.1 per 1000. County birth rates are consistently below average compared to the state, which is attributed to the higher senior population of the county (El Dorado Co). There is a high prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in this community, related to poor or ineffective coping skills in the populous. There is aÃ real powerful stigma against the homeless community here, which really could benefit from some community teaching and outreach. The Neighborhood Community Safety Assessment shows that the air and water quality is very good in this community. Carbon monoxide levels are below the US average. They do usually have a few bad air days a year due to fires. There is some residual mercury left over from the mining days, but in low levels (El Dorado Co). During the winter snow, flooding and the cold pose health hazards. During the summer, fires are a hazard to public safety. However, there is excellent fire and police response here in this community. Many rivers and lakes in this community pose a risk for drowning; however, there are very few documented drowningÃ¢â¬â¢s here per year. There is quite a bit of poison oak & ivy here, and grass and hay fever irritants. Last, I will discuss the Disaster Assessment & Planning in this community. Through my research, I found that this community does follow federal guidelines for disaster management (OES). There is a County Operational Area Emergency Operations Plan that was adopted in 2007 (City of Placerville). This plan has four parts that cover administrative, an emergency operations center plan, a recovery plan, & plans specific to a type of emergency (terrorism, multi-casualty incidents, hazard mitigation plan, etc.). This plan meets needs for rescue, medical care, food, shelter, clothing, temporary housing, and employment should an emergency arise. This community also uses the CDCÃ¢â¬â¢s Public Health Emergency Response Guide for emergency preparedness & response. I found all this information on line, but it took considerable research and was not easy. In my research, I found that most residents in this community are not aware of any disaster preparedness plan, nor do they know where to find one. There needs to some community wide teaching on disaster preparedness, an d where to find information regarding this. The following is my community genogram and diagnosis. Community Diagnosis Within the parameters assessed above, El Dorado County California is a healthy community. The areas that need improvements are discovering a way to help people respond in healthy ways to painful life events other than drugs & alcohol, to create & implement a plan to help the homeless community, to educate the public regarding the causes and preventativeÃ measures for Cancer & Coronary Artery Disease, and to educate the public regarding emergency & disaster preparedness through community outreach programs. Community Diagnosis Within the parameters assessed above, El Dorado County California is a healthy community. The areas that need improvements are discovering a way to help people respond in healthy ways to painful life events other than drugs & alcohol, to create & implement a plan to help the homeless community, to educate the public regarding the causes and preventative measures for Cancer & Coronary Artery Disease, and to educate the public regarding emergency & disaster preparedness through community outreach programs. El Dorado County, California hhhh El Dorado County, California hhhh Population Economic Status Located in Northern California Population 181,058 Mostly white Next largest ethnic group Mexican Median household income 70,000 7.9% households at or below poverty level 11.8% unemployment rate 600+ homeless 9,000 receive food stamps 3,000 families receive cash aid Population Economic Status Located in Northern California Population 181,058 Mostly white Next largest ethnic group Mexican Median household income 70,000 7.9% households at or below poverty level 11.8% unemployment rate 600+ homeless 9,000 receive food stamps 3,000 families receive cash aid Cultural Assessment Slightly more females than males Mostly white Christians Subcultures small Mexican & Asian Many know how to achieve good health-60% put forth effort 85% have health coverage Most know how & where to obtain medical care High prevalence of alcohol & drug abuse due to a variety of stressors Stigmas of homelessness Vast variety of outdoor recreational activities Cultural Assessment Slightly more females than males Mostly white Christians Subcultures small Mexican & Asian Many know how to achieve good health-60% put forth effort 85% have health coverage Most know how & where to obtain medical care High prevalence of alcohol & drug abuse due to a variety of stressors Stigmas of homelessness Vast variety of outdoor recreational activities Neighborhood/ Community Safety Health dept very involved in providing health services, education & information Very good air quality Very good water quality Potential for wildlife disease Vast amounts of rivers & lakes potential for drowning Severe weather events potential Potential for fires due to vast forestry Excellent fire & police response Domestic violence calls 10.5 per 1000 Neighborhood/ Community Safety Health dept very involved in providing health services, education & information Very good air quality Very good water quality Potential for wildlife disease Vast amounts of rivers & lakes potential for drowning Severe weather events potential Potential for fires due to vast forestry Excellent fire & police response Domestic violence calls 10.5 per 1000 Disaster Assessment/Planning El Dorado County Operational Area Emergency Operations Plan California Emergency Management Agency & Federal Emergency Management Agency preparedness plan Following federal guidelines Rescue, medical care, food, shelter, clothing Temporary housing, food stamps, employment Public Health Emergency Response Guide by CDC for emergency preparedness and response Most residents unaware of any plan Disaster plan not readily available or easily found Disaster Assessment/Planning El Dorado County Operational Area Emergency Operations Plan California Emergency Management Agency & Federal Emergency Management Agency preparedness plan Following federal guidelines Rescue, medical care, food, shelter, clothing Temporary housing, food stamps, employment Public Health Emergency Response Guide by CDC for emergency preparedness and response Most residents unaware of any plan Disaster plan not readily available or easily found The community genogram shows a relatively healthy mostly white community. As a whole, the people here make a good living, with unemployment below the national average. A small percentage receives food stamps and public cash benefits, also below the national average. Most people have health coverage, and about 60% of the population is proactive with their health. The leading causes of death are cancer and then cardiac disease occurring in the high 80Ã¢â¬â¢s of age, due to the large retirement population. The public health department is very involved in providing health services here (CDHP). The air and water quality is good here, with pollution below the national average. There is some potential for bad weather and fires, however, our fire and police response are excellent here. There is a good disaster preparedness plan, however, it is difficult to find, and few know about it. There is a high incidence of alcohol and drug use here, with poor and inadequate coping skills to handle d ifficult life events. The homeless population is really looked down upon here. Within the parameters assessed above, El Dorado County is a healthy community. The areas that need improvement are discovering a way to help people respond in healthy ways to painful life events other than drugs & alcohol, to create & implement a plan to help the homeless community, to educate the public regarding the causes and preventative measures for Cancer & Coronary Artery Disease, and to educate the public regarding emergency & disaster preparedness through community outreach programs. Bibliography CDHP. Retrieved from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/Pages/HealthyCommunityIndicators.aspx City of Placerville. Retrieved from http://www.cityofplacerville.org/ El Dorado County Economic and Demographic Profile. Retrieved from http://www.eldoradocounty.org/ Office of Emergency Services (OES). Retrieved from http://www.edcgov.us/Government/Sheriff/Divisions/Support/Office_of_Emergency_Services_
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Introduction Nowadays, innovative is an essential advantage in this dog-eat-dog market for every organization. Innovative can be everything that is new and not exist in current market, however in order to fulfill the gap in this demanding market, organizations must be very innovative to come out with new products and services. Organizations nowadays are recruiting employees who are creative and innovative because they are person who have sensitive antenna to sense and observe what the people want and need.In current market, thermos water bottle is very common for people to store their drinks; because thermos water bottle allows people to keep their drinks cold or warm for a very short period of time. Therefore, there would be a gap exists where the people want to drink cold or hot beverage at anytime and anywhere they want. To fulfill this gap, DualBottle has came out as it is a thermos water bottle which has the function of heating and freezing the beverage inside the thermos water bottle at anytime the customer wants.In other words, DualBottle will act like a refrigerator to chill the water as cold as it can or heating up the water just like a water boiler. In the current market, there is no similar product that has the function like DualBottle and this innovative product will bring in another level of convenience to the consumers in the market. Hence, people may want this new product to be in the market. In fact, water bottle in the current market is only used for storing water and sometimes not even suitable to store hot water as some water bottles have no qualified certificate because it is made of lower quality of plastic.In addition, DualBottle enables people to get hot or cold water easily in their daily activities. In this assignment, we are going to discuss in-depth on market research of DualBottle and also new product descriptions and specifications. Market Research Direct competitors There are several direct competitors for DualBottle which they hav e the similar types of product in the same market such as heaters, coolers and normal water bottles. In this case, keeping on track on consequential technological innovations is very important for a particular company to maintain a competitive advantage in the market.Firstly, the innovative product will have certain competition and comparatives with those existing and well-known brand like Thermos, Zebra, Camelback, Klean Kanteen, SIGG, Cheeki, Eco vessel and many more. These brands are the direct competitors for the DualBottle because these brands produce quality stainless steel and aluminium water bottles similar to the DualBottle but of course every brand has its specialty of their own products such as the designs, different attractive colors, functions, specifications, future and its outlook.These brands are the main direct competitors for DualBottle because both these products from these brands have the similar functions of heat preservation and have these brands are historical as compared with the new product. Though our new innovative product, DualBottle can reheat and re-chill the drinks; however, the existing of the products can only help to maintain the heat and the warmness of the drinks. In fact, people may be more likely to choose old brand due to brand loyalty and influenced by the power of word of mouth.The brand new product might be very novel yet it is still under the observation period to attract and being recognized by the people. On the other hand, old products are more creditable and always have good comments from one consumer to another consumer. Indirect competitors Beside those direct competitors, there are a number of indirect competitors for the DualBottle. Indirect competitors are the competitors that compete with the DualBottle indirectly. For example refrigerators that can cool the water, this is an indirect competitor because households have refrigerators at home.So it is considered as an indirect competitor. On the other hand, th e kettle and hot water flask are also indirect competitors to the DualBottle because at home people use kettle to boil water and hot water flask because the flask is to keep the hot water to remain hot. Other than that, Mineral waters that are sold in sundry shops, supermarkets, convenient shops, and other places are considered as indirect competitors because they have cold beverages and warm beverages separately. Instead of purchasing DualBottle, customers might just purchase mineral waters for daily usage.Besides that, water dispensers are the main indirect competitors because the DualBottle mostly targeted customers are people who work in office, travel daily and also students. Water dispensers are available in all colleges and offices. Hence, instead bringing the water bottles along with them, customers may prefer using the water dispenser for cold and warm drinks. So it is considered a main competitor to the DualBottle that competes in the market. Furthermore, companies such as Starbucks also are served as the indirect competitor for the new product.Although Starbucks specialized on producing good and tasty coffee, the company itself has launched their own tumbler which also has the similar function with this new product as tumbler can be used to fill up the hot beverages. Besides that, Starbucks also has a promotion for its own customers by using the tumbler when they purchase hot beverage. They can get the RM2 rebate by using the tumbler. Hence, most of the customers who loyal and fascinating in Starbucks will tend to purchase the tumbler to get better offer. This phenomenon also will be one of the issues for the launching of new product.Next, in terms of the future competition for the DualBottle where in this new era technology is growing in a fast pace, all the products that selling in the market already be advanced. In the past years, these products are not in existence. However, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast development society, these products cannot be le ft out and more innovative and modern products are being launched. Most of the young adults have strong interest in trying new products. When this situation happened, all of the past products might be left out.Thus, to consolidate the base of new product in the competitive market, branding should be taken into consideration. Future competitors not only on the products themselves, but also included the consumer behaviour in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. There will be always new competitors that will enter the market because of the advance of the technology. Target customers The innovative product, water bottle thermos is designed to satisfy all the needs of the individual and company. Furthermore, targeted customers are normal people who travel a lot; they can keep warm or cold water together with them while travelling in the car or bus.For instance, long distance travellers can keep hot coffee in the DualBottle so they can drink it while travelling to keep them fresh. Besides that, we are also targeting DualBottle on working adults and students who usually face with busy and tight schedule where they may be even unable to have their proper meals. For example, an event executive, Amanda is too busy with her task and could not even find time to have her meals and so, with this DualBottle, she is now able to enjoy her favourite drinks either in hot or cold at anytime and anywhere even when she is busy.With our unique selling point of DualBottle, that is the ability to reheat and re-freeze the drinks quickly by using the steel casing in which making DualBottle appeared to be so practical; it may also attract many companies to purchase our product as it can provide a high level of convenience to their employees. Therefore, we may be indulging ourselves in both B2B and B2C market in order to gain higher market share respectively and establishing a strong position in the market. We strongly believe that targeting the right consumers will achieve a desirable benefit to our innovative product, DualBottle.New Product First of all, stainless steel water bottle maybe very common in this current market such as Thermos, Klean Kanteen, Thinksport, and Eco Vessel. In fact that, there are just normal insulated water bottles which can keep drinks cold or hot for a short period however; DualBottle is coming up with an innovative idea where the water bottle is chargeable in order to heat up the drinks or make the drinks chilled. Although it appears to be nothing different from ordinary bottle, DualBottle has a Ã¢â¬Ëmagic' function that cannot be found in the current market.The uniqueness that able to chill soft drinks or to retain temperature of warm Chinese tea with a tiny Ã¢â¬Å"plug and playÃ¢â¬ kind of component attached to make DualBottle more standout. Similarly to some other portable coolers, it uses thermoelectric cooling system concept to switch between two modes (cold and hot) with just a button. In line with technology advancement, DualBottle is d esigned with an external component that can be attached from the bottom of the bottle and it is contacted with a metal plate to serve as conductor in order to transmit cold and heat.Meanwhile, instead of operating in 12 or 24 volts direct current (DC) which is similar to mini fridge, we would replace the battery storage with a 2800 milli-Ampere-hour (mAh) rechargeable battery. For instance, two hours are required to get the battery fully charged and it could be used for ten consecutive hours. Besides, there would be two different ways to charge the battery component by using direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). It would be more convenient as users do not need to plug-on direct current or alternating current in order to use of the function because there would be power reserved in battery component.Additionally, DualBottle will have an automatic power switch off when the water temperature is heated up to 70Ã °C and the water temperature is chilled down to 3Ã °C to 5Ã ° C. On the other hand, DualBottle can be presented more innovative by introducing another range of models that uses solar energy as an optional charging method therefore; the battery can be charged automatically whenever solar heat is stored. Moreover, when users do not feel like using the function, they could always remove the external component to function it as ordinary bottles like Bros, Sigg and Zebra.In addition, DualBottle is chargeable by using USB port charger and car power adapter as well, this idea enables users to charge DualBottle whenever they want. In fact, DualBottle can act more than a common water bottle where it can perform as a water warmer to keep the beverage warm for 4-6 hours because of the double-wall insulation designed; then it also can act as a water heater to heat up the beverage up to 70Ã °C, lastly it perform as a water cooler to hill the beverage down to 3Ã °C. Forget about the traditional design of Thermos bottle in which it looked heavy with stainl ess steel silver colour; DualBottle would design the products with relatively new colours and standout themes. DualBottle would look more colorful and attractive by adding some printings on it, the designs can be plain but sharp colors and candy colours, animal prints for fancy female group, and users can even print their pictures or words on DualBottle.To target different types of customers, DualBottle would allow customers to choose their favourite colour and design or to custom-made their bottle by choosing what design, features, function, colour, and engrave their name on the bottle. Besides, it would be designed for easy to carry by attaching a strap and also slim fit exterior outlook of the bottle. Meanwhile, the cover cap of DualBottle would be anti-leaking water designed which are made by rubber and plastic. It would be easier to design the bottle with open-close cover, instead of using rubber grip cap cover.However, there are also pros and cons to adopt the design of open-c lose cover. For instance, rubber grip cap cover can have better prevention of losing the water temperature in the bottle as compared with the open-close cover. As people are more health conscious nowadays, DualBottle uses stainless steel, aluminium and bisphenol A (BPA) free as inner bottle materials in production line hence; it would not be harmful to the users. Since a metal plate would acts as an electrical conductor to heat up or chill cold the drinks; stainless steel, aluminium and BPA free plastic materials are not an issue to end-users.In general, DualBottle has three different kinds of bottles but they perform the same function for users. This is because to target different group of customers as stainless steel material is usually expensive, aluminium material is on the average price, and plastic material would be cheaper. Nevertheless, high quality of stainless steel materials are usually weigh heavier as compared to aluminium and plastic materials; so materials made of Dua lBottle might be affect the weight of product but however, DualBottle has only two standardized bottle volume which are 500ml and 750ml.To be a part of contributing towards environmental friendly program, we would to use recycle materials if possible. The quality of the product must be proven through some international recognized authorities like FDA (US Food & Drug Administration), LFGB (Europe Food Contact Material Standard), ISO (International Organization for Standardization), and SIRIM (Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia).Besides, DualBottle would only use high quality of electric thermos which it is also often used by Thermos, Klean Kanteen, and La Gourmet; this is to ensure that DualBottle can produce high quality products instead of using cheap materials. With the fact that the production cost might not be cheap and therefore it is expected that DualBottle is placed in high quality and high price position. Conclusion In the current market, thermos water b ottle is frequently used by the people to store their drinks and keeping their drinks cold or warm for only a very short period of time.Our group has established the gap within the market where people may want to enjoy cold or hot drinks at the anytime and anywhere in their daily life. Thus, we have come out with an innovative product called Ã¢â¬Å"DualBottleÃ¢â¬ . In developing DualBottle, it is apparent that we will be facing those direct competitors like Thermos, Klean Kanteen, Sigg, and Zebra which have dominated the market for quite a long time in producing thermos water bottle. However, these products only consists the function of preserving heat and not heating or freezing like what DualBottle can do.On the other hand, we also will be facing some of the indirect competitors in the market like water dispenser companies, mineral water companies, some electrical companies that produces kettle and water boiler and even Starbucks as they had launched their own brand tumbler to i ncrease loyalty of their customers. The DualBottle is targeted at travellers, students and working adults who may be very eventful and does not even have the time to sit down and enjoy their drinks. Thus, the ability of DualBottle to heat and freeze drinks enable these people to have a moment of pleasure on their favourite drinks either in hot or cold.The practical side of DualBottle may attract companies to buy in bulk from us in order to supply to their employees as it is very convenient to their daily activities. DualBottle introduces a function where it can be heated up the beverage or chilled the beverage in water bottle by only clicking a button. This function can be done by attaching a metal plate which acts as conductor on the bottom of the inner bottle and then an external component to act as battery to transmit energy.In additional, the external battery is actually an external component which can be attached or removed from the bottle. It is easy to charge by using adapter , USB port, car power adapter, and also solar energy. Moreover, Dualbottle design the bottle by using 3 different kinds of materials which include stainless steel, aluminium, and plastic. There are all having the same performance and with 2 standardized capacity volume of bottle which are 500ml and 750ml.DualBottle may obtain international certificates by government organizations to prove that the bottles are safe to use and has no harms to health. Besides, it would be having attractive outlook as the designs are standout and DualBottle enables customers to custom-made their bottle as well. The cover cap of bottle may be open-close cover design because of convenience and anti-leaking purpose. In conclusion, DualBottle is a high quality dual-function bottle and hence, it would be also selling at higher price. Reference list Alicia,2009.Top 5 Stainless Steel Water Bottles. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 2nd April 2012] Better Bottle Stainless, 2012. [online] Available at: [Access ed on 3rd April 2012] Hydro Flask, 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 3rd April 2012] Klean Kanteen, 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 4th April 2012] Shop Naturally, 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 4th April 2012] SIGG Design Bottles, 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 3rd April 2012] Zazzle water bottles, 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 4th april 2012]
Monday, January 6, 2020
Wilfred Owen poems Ã¢â¬ËThe SentryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬â¢ contain a myriad of both shocking and realistic war experiences on a microscopic level. Wilfred Owen a company officer talks about his egregious exposure to war and how war contaminates life and existence of humans. In both poems the 1st stanza implies the threats and life in war, which then springboards us to the physical effect of one specific soldier and the thirds stanza he relives the inescapable experience and ends the poem with a bleak, ironic statement. Ã¢â¬ËThe SentryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬â¢ have many similarities; they highlight the price paid by soldiers and relentlessly unveil the full scale of war s horrors. There are two types of prices paid by soldiers due to war; one deprives humans of their sanity whereas one consumes the breath which makes us human. In both poems Owen shows us the physical effect of war, Wilfred starts the poems showcasing unendurable stress the men were going through. Appalling pictures are created and expressed through similes and metaphors. OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s lexical choices link to the semantic field of the archaic which conveys the atavistic effects of war. The men are compared to old beggars, hags, the once young men have been deprived of their youth and turned into old women, the loss of masculinity express the how exhausting and ruthless war was. The men were barely awake from lack of sleep, they Ã¢â¬Å"marched in sleepÃ¢â¬ their once smart uniforms resembling Ã¢â¬Å"sacksÃ¢â¬ . He also expresses howShow MoreRelatedAll Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque Essay1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessounds as if he were describing a pack of wolves. Furthermore, when Paul becomes trapped in the middle ground during a skirmish, he realizes he must defend himself. A French soldier jumps into his hole, forc ing Paul to kill him. Paul Ã¢â¬Å"strike[s] madly at home and feel[s] only how the body suddenly convulsesÃ¢â¬ without any thought (Remarque 216). The language employed by Remarque suggests PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is animalistic and brutal. His mad stabs into the body of the Frenchman imply the violent and impersonalRead MoreWilfred Owen1783 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdescribing physical horror, such as inÃ¢â¬Ë Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬â¢ or the unseen, mental torment such as inÃ¢â¬Ë DisabledÃ¢â¬â¢. His diverse use of instantly understandable imagery and technique is what makes him the most memorable of the war poets. His poetry evokes more from us than simple disgust and sympathy; issues previously unconsidered are brought to our attention. One of OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s talents is to convey his complex messages very proficiently. InÃ¢â¬Ë Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Ë If in some smothering dreams you tooRead MoreAnalysis Of Wilfred Owen s `` Dulce Et Decorum Est ``1256 Wo rds Ã |Ã 6 PagesWilfred Owen is remembered as one of the greatest poets to capture the war in words. His work was described as Ã¢â¬Å"the finest written by any English poet of the first War and probably the greatest poems about war in our literatureÃ¢â¬ (Lewis 11) despite him only having had 4 poems published in his lifetime, though he did write many more. His poems truly did capture the terror and harsh truth of the hardships the soldiers faced in the trenches everyday during World War I, evident in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce Et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬
Friday, January 3, 2020
Give your French vocabulary a boost by reviewing words starting with letters D, E and F. Hear the pronunciation of these words and tryÃ using them in context. Words Starting With D Word Definition Category D the letter D French alphabet d'abord (adv) - first, in the first place d'accord OK Basic vocabulary dada (figurative) hobby-horse d'ailleurs (adv) - besides, moreover, for that matter une dalle paving stone, slab Daniel Daniel French names la danse dancing Hobbies la date date Dates David David French names dÃ ©baller to unpack, display, let out dÃ ©barrasser to clear, to rid (someone) of dÃ ©bile (adj) - weak, frail, sickly, poor; (inf) - stupid dÃ ©biter to produce, to sell dÃ ©blayer to clear away, remove, tidy up; to prepare (ground) dÃ ©boÃ ®ter to disconnect, dislodge, dislocate; (driving) to pull out dÃ ©bordement overflow(ing), boiling over, (out)burst dÃ ©border to overflow, to stick out; (fig) - to be bursting with un dÃ ©bouchÃ © opening, outlet, prospect debout (adj, adv) - standing, upright dÃ ©brouiller to untangle, sort out, teach someone the basics dÃ ©butant (adj) - beginning, novice dÃ ©ca decaf (informal) le dÃ ©calage horaire time difference, jet lag dÃ ©cembre December Calendar dÃ ©clencher to release, set off, trigger, launch, work dÃ ©coiffer to muss (one's hair), to take one's hat off dÃ ©contractÃ © (adj) relaxed, laid back, casual en dÃ ©coudre to fight, do battle dÃ ©crÃ ©ter to order, declare, decree, ordain, decide dÃ ©crocher to pick up (the phone) On the phone dÃ ©daigner to despise, look down on, scorn, disdain, spurn le dÃ ©dommagement compensation, something to make up for a problem dÃ ©fense d'entrer do not enter Travel dÃ ©fense de fumer no smoking Restaurant un dÃ ©fi challenge, defiance un dÃ ©gÃ ¢t (often plural) - damage dÃ ©glinguer (inf) - to bust, break dÃ ©goiser (inf) - to spout, rattle on dÃ ©gommer (fam) - to demote, ire; to lay into, get told off dÃ ©goter (inf) - to dig up, find dÃ ©gringoler to collapse, fall; to rush/fall down dÃ ©guerpir (inf) - to clear off/out, scarper dÃ ©gueulasse (fam adj) - lousy, rotten, filthy, disgusting dÃ ©guster to taste, sample, savor; (inf) - to suffer, have a rough time le dÃ ©jeuner lunch Food dÃ ©laisser to abandon, quit, give up, neglect de l'aprÃ ¨s-midi in the afternoon Telling time se dÃ ©lecter to (take) delight in, to revel in dÃ ©lester (technical) to cut off power, relieve congestion / a burden; (transportation) to remove ballast se demander to wonder, to ask oneself dÃ ©manger to itch (literally and fig) le dÃ ©maquillant make-up remover Toiletries dÃ ©marrer to start up, to move off, to get moving un dÃ ©mÃ ªlÃ © dispute, quarrel se dÃ ©mener to thrash about, struggle, exert oneself dÃ ©mettre to dislocate, dismiss la demeure residence, home (old-fashioned, literary) demeurer to stay/live somewhere, to remain la dÃ ©mission resignation, abdication dÃ ©modÃ © (adj) - old-fashioned, out-of-date le dÃ ©ni denial (law and psychology) Denis Dennis French names Denise Denise French names la dent tooth Body le dentifrice toothpaste Toiletries le dÃ ©odorant deodorant Toiletries dÃ ©poser to lay/put/set down, dump, leave; to deposit; to file, register; to testify dÃ ©poussiÃ ©rer to remove dust from (literally and fig) depuis un an for a year Optional liaisons dÃ ©ranger to disturb, bother, trouble; to mix/mess up dÃ ©raper to skid, slip, soar derechef (literary, archaic adv, used in jest) - once again, once more de rien you're welcome Politeness dÃ ©river to divert, derive, stem from dessaisir (legal) - to remove le dessert dessert Dessert desservir to clear (away), to do a disservice to, to harm; (transportation) - to serve dÃ ©suet (adj) - outdated, old-fashioned, quaint dÃ ©taler (inf) - to bolt, take off, clear out, skedaddle dÃ ©tourner to divert, hijack; turn away, avert; embezzle se dÃ ©traquer to break down, to be upset deux 2 Numbers deux cent un 201 Numbers deux cents 200 Numbers deux enfants two children Liaisons deux mille 2,000 Numbers deux millions 2,000,000 Numbers devancer to get/be/arrive/do ahead of devant in front of la dÃ ©veine (informal) rotten luck deviner to guess, solve, foresee; to make out dÃ ©voiler to unveil, disclose, reveal des devoirs (m) homework School Diane Diane French names un diapason (music) range, tuning fork, pitch pipe un dico (inf) - dictionary (short for dictionnaire) un dictionnaire dictionary School un dicton saying, dicton, expression Didier French names la diffÃ ©rence difference, identity, dissent diffÃ ©rer to differ, be different; to postpone le digestif after-dinner drink Drinks dimanche Sunday Calendar la dinde turkey Meat le dÃ ®ner dinner Food dingue (inf adj) - crazy, nuts, barmy direct (adj) - direct, straight les directions (f) directions Directions dirigeant (adj) - ruling, senior un dispositif device, mechanism; plan (of action, attack...) le dissolvant nail polish remover Toiletries dix 10 Numbers dix-huit 18 Numbers dix-neuf 19 Numbers dix-sept 17 Numbers une dizaine about ten le dodo beddy-bye, sleepy-time Baby talk le doigt finger Body Dominique Dominic, Dominica French names dompter to tame, subdue, master, overcome les DOM-TOM (acronym) - DÃ ©partements d'outre-mer, Territoires d'outre-mer Acronyms donc (conjunction) so, therefore dorÃ ©navant (adv) - from now on, henceforth DorothÃ ©e Dorothy French names le dos back Body dotÃ © (adj) - equipped/endowed with la douane customs Travel doublÃ © (adj) - lined, dubbed le doudou blankie, blanket Baby talk douÃ © (adj) - talented, gifted, endowed with douillet (adj) soft, cozy, snug doux (adj) - sweet, soft, gentle, mild douze 12 Numbers un drap sheet, large towel dresser to stand up, raise, erect; to draw or write up la droguerie drugstore Shopping drÃ ´le (adj) funny, peculiar drÃ ´lement (inf) awfully, terribly, very TrÃ ¨ssynonyms du brouillard foggy Weather du matin in the morning Telling time du soir in the evening/at night Telling time du soleil sunny Weather du vent windy Weather Words Starting With E Word Definition Category E the letter E French alphabet l'eau (f) water Drinks l'eau dentifrice mouthwash Toiletries Ã ©branler to shake, weaken, compromise Ã ©carter to move apart, to spread (open), to dismiss une Ã ©chÃ ©ance expiration/maturity/redemption/payment/due date; term un Ã ©chec failure, defeat, setback, breakdown Ã ©chouer to fail; to end up un Ã ©clair lightning, flash, (fig) - spark Ã ©clater to burst, blow up, explode; to break out; to make noise; to shine Ã ©clipser to eclipse, overshadow une Ã ©cole school School Ã ©conomies (f plural) savings, conservation Ã ©corce (fem noun) - bark, peel, skin Ã ©couler to sell Ã ©courter to shorten, cut short, curtail un Ã ©cran screen Ã ©craser to crush, grind, squeeze; run over un Ã ©crivain writer Professions s'Ã ©crouler to fall down, collapse, crumble Ã ©culÃ © (adj) - worn down, worn out Ã ©cume (fem) foam, froth, scum, lather Ãâ°dith Edith French names Ãâ°douard Edward French names Ã ©dulcorer to water/tone down; to sweeten effacer to erase effectuer to carry out, to make (happen), to accomplish effondrÃ © (adj) - shattered, crushed, collapsed s'efforcer to try hard, endeavor, do one's best to effrayÃ © (adj) - scared Mood effroyable appalling, horrifying Ã ©gal (adj) equal, even, unchanging Ã l'Ã ©gard de toward, concerning Ã ©gards (m) consideration Ã ©garÃ © (adj) - lost, stray, distraught une Ã ©glise church Directions Ãâ°gyptien(ne) Egyptian Lang + Nat Ã ©hontÃ © (adj) shameless, brazen un Ã ©lectricien electrician Professions Ãâ°lÃ ©onore Eleanor French names Ãâ°lisabeth Elizabeth French names Ãâ°lise Elisa French names elle she, it Subject pronouns elle est she is EnchaÃ ®nement Elle prend un livre She is taking a book Optional liaisons elles they Subject pronouns Elle s'appelle .... Her name is... Introductions Ãâ°lodie French names Ã ©loigner to move away (transitive), remove, estrange, banish, dismiss Ã ©lucubrations (f) wild imaginings emballer to pack; (inf) - to thrill; (fam) - to arrest; to seduce un embouteillage traffic jam, holdup, (fig) bottleneck embrouillÃ © (adj) - confused, mixed-up Ãâ°mile Emile French names Ãâ°milie Emily French names Emmanuel Emmanuel French names s'emparer to seize, snatch, grab, take over empiler to pile, stack up; (fam) - to have, swindle un(e) employÃ ©(e) employee Professions emprunter to borrow en arriÃ ¨re de in back of Directions en avant de in front of Directions en bas down Directions encastrer to embed, fit encenser to burn incense; to flatter, praise excessively enciente (adj) - pregnant encenser to flatter, praise excessively enchantÃ ©(e) (adj) - delighted (to meet you) Introductions une enchÃ ¨re bid encore une fois one more time Basic vocab un(e) Ã ©nergumÃ ¨ne firebrand en fait in fact, as a matter of fact enfin (adv) - at last, finally; (interj) - well, in a word engelures frostbite engourdir to make numb en haut up Directions ennuyÃ © (adj) - bored, annoyed Mood ennuyeux (adj) - boring Personality en panne out of order, broken down Travel une enquÃ ªte inquiry, investigation, survey enrayer to (keep in) check, curb, jam enrhume (adj) - having a cold en route on the way Driving en souffrance pending, awaiting delivery entacher to soil, taint, tarnish (fig); riddled, marred (with errors) entourer to surround, rally around un entracte (theater, cinÃ ©ma) interval, intermission; (figurative) interruption, interlude, break entraÃ ®ner to take, drag (a person), to lead, influence; to bring about, lead to; to entail, mean entre eux between them EnchaÃ ®nement entretenir to maintain, keep, look after, support; (formal) to talk, converse entrouvrir to half-open Ã ©olien (adj) related to wind Ã ©pais (adj) thick; (derog) dense, dull, thick Ã ©parpiller to scatter, disperse Ã ©pater to amaze, impress une Ã ©paule shoulder Body Ã ©pi spike, tuft une Ã ©picerie grocery store Shopping les Ã ©pinards (m) spinach Vegetables une Ã ©pingle pin Jewelry une Ã ©pouse wife Love language un Ã ©poux husband Love language une Ã ©preuve test, ordeal, hardship Ã ©prouver to feel, experience, suffer, sustain, test Ã ©puisÃ © (adj) - worn-out, exhausted Ãâ°ric Eric French names Ã ¨s Contraction of en + les, used for university degrees. une escale stopover, port of call un escalier stairway Home escamoter evade, get around; to conjure away; (inf) - to steal les escargots (m) snails Meat escrime (f) fencing une esgourde archaic and slang for ear (used in jest) Espagnol(e), l'espagnol Spanish Lang + Nat une espÃ ¨ce species, kind, type; (inf pej) - some, stupid espiÃ ¨gle (adj) - mischievous, impish un espion spy une esquisse sketch, outline; beginnings, hint un essaim swarm (literally and figuratively) une essence petrol/gas, spirit, essence, gist, species of a tree essence ordinaire regular gas Driving l'essentiel the basics Basic vocab un essor rapid growth, development, boom; (formal/elegant) flight les essuie-glaces windshield wipers Driving est east Directions estimer to appraise, value, estimate; to (hold in) esteem; to consider, judge estival (adj) summer(y) un estomac stomach Body estomaquer (informal) to stun, stagger, flabbergast, gobsmack estomper to blur, dim, soften, become indistinct et and Basic vocab une Ã ©tagÃ ¨re (book)shelf Furniture Ã ©taler to spread, strew et demie and a half Telling time Ã ©tÃ © summer Calendar Ã ©ternuer to sneeze Ãâ°tienne Steven French names Ã ©tirer to stretch Ã ©toffer to enrich, fill in, flesh out, extend, beef up, strengthen une Ã ©tourderie absent-mindedness; (fam) - careless mistake et quart quarter after Telling time Ã ªtre coupÃ © to be cut off On the phone un Ã ©tudiant, une Ã ©tudiante student Professions EugÃ ¨ne Eugene French names EuropÃ ©en(ne) European Lang + Nat Ã ©vanouir to faint, pass out; to disappear Ã ©veillÃ © (adj) - alert, bright, awake Ã ©ventuellement (adv) - possibly, if need be un Ã ©vier sink Furniture exact (adj) exact, right, accurate, correct; on time exagÃ ©rer to exaggerate, overdo un examen test School exaucer to fulfill, grant, answer excellent excellent Bonsynonyms exceptionnel exceptional Bonsynonyms exceptionnellement exceptionally TrÃ ¨s synonyms excitÃ © (adj) - hyper(active) Mood une excursion trip Driving excursionner to go on trips, walks excusez-moi excuse me Politeness Excusez-moi de vous dÃ ©ranger I'm sorry to disturb you Politeness exemplaire (adj) - model, exemplary; un exemplaire - copy exigeant (adj) demanding, exacting une expÃ ©rience experience, experiment exprÃ ¨s (adv) - on purpose, deliberately un express espresso Drinks exprimer to express extraordinaire extraordinary Bonsynonyms extraordinairement extraordinarily TrÃ ¨ssynonyms extrÃ ªmement extremely TrÃ ¨ssynonyms Words Starting With F Word Definition Category F the letter F French alphabet fabriquer to make, produce; fabricate, make up; (inf) to do, to be up to fabuler to fantasize la fac (inf, short for facultÃ ©) - university fÃ ¢chÃ © (adj) - angry Mood faible (adj) - weak Personality la faim hunger Food fainÃ ©ant (adj) lazy, idle faire le plein to fill it up Driving faire sisite to sit Baby talk se faire les ongles to do one's nails Toiletries au fait by the way en fait in fact, as a matter of fact un faix burden une falaise cliff falot (adj) - colorless, wan, pale un falot lantern fameux adj before noun) - first-rate; real; famous, much talked-about une famille family Family fanÃ © (adj) - faded, wilted le fard make-up, greasepaint le fard Ã joues blusher Toiletries le fard Ã paupiÃ ¨res eyeshadow Toiletries farfelu (inf adj) - cranky, scatty, hare-brained, eccentric fastueux luxurious, sumptuous fatiguÃ © (adj) - tired Mood faufiler to baste, tack fauteur one who does something (usually bad) fÃ ªlÃ © (adj) cracked, (informal) crazy une femme wife, woman Family une femme de chambre maid Professions une fenÃ ªtre window Furniture fermÃ © (adj) - closed Travel la fermetÃ © firmness, solidness, confidence fÃ ©ru (adj) - interested in / keen on la fesse buttock le feu fire, stoplight, stove burner une feuille deÃ¢â¬â¹ papier piece of paper Office feuilleter to leaf through, skim; to roll out (pastry, dough) le feu rouge stop light Driving les feux de route high beams Driving le feux de stop brake lights Driving fÃ ©vrier February Calendar fiable (adj) accurate, reliable, dependable fianÃ §ailles (f) engagement un(e) fiancÃ ©(e) fiance Love language une ficelle string, type of bread ficher (slang) - to do, give, put, leave fichu (informal adj) - lousy, rotten, foul; done for, bust; put together, dressed; damned figurer to represent, to appear le fil dentaire dental floss Toiletries une fille daughter, girl Family un film a movie Hobbies un fils son Family un fixe-cravate tie-clip Jewelry flairer to smell, sense le flamand Flemish Lang + Nat un flÃ ©au curse, plague, bane; flail la flemme (inf) - laziness une fleur flower Love language un flic (inf) - cop, copper, bobby un flingue gun, rifle un flocon flake, fleck flopÃ ©e (informal) - a bunch, tons, loads, masses Florence Florence French names flotter to float, drift, hang (in the air), flutter, hover fofolle (inf adj) - scatty, crazy le foin hay follement (inf) incredibly TrÃ ¨s synonyms foncÃ © (invariable adj) - dark (color) foncer to charge at or into; to make darker; (inf) - to rush, tear, charge along fonciÃ ¨rement (adv) - fundamentally, basically un(e)Ã¢â¬â¹ fonctionnaire civil servant Professions le foot, football soccer Hobbies le footballamÃ ©ricain football Hobbies un forain fairground entertainer, carnie forcÃ ©ment (adv) - necessarily, inevitably une forme form, shape Formidable! Great! Accent affectif fort (adj) - strong Personality un fossÃ © (lit, fig) - ditch, gulf, gap des fossettes dimples Descriptions la foudre lightning un fouet whip, whisk la fougue ardor, spirit la fouille search, excavation, dig un fouillis jumble, muddle un foulard scarf Accessories un four oven Furniture un four Ã micro-ondes microwave oven une fourchette fork Dishes fourrer to stuff, fill; (info) - to put, stick, shove la fourriÃ ¨re dog pound, impound yard fourvoyer to mislead, get someone lost, lead astray frais (adj) - cool, crisp, fresh une fraise strawberry Fruit une framboise raspberry Fruit FranÃ §ais(e), le franÃ §ais French Lang + Nat franchir to cross, get over, overcome Francis Francis French names Franck Frank French names FranÃ §ois Francis French names FranÃ §oise Frances French names francophone (adj) - French-speaking un/eÃ¢â¬â¹ Francophone (proper noun) - French speaker Ã la bonne franquette simple, without any fuss frapper to hit, stab, strike, knock frasques (f) escapades FrÃ ©dÃ ©ric Frederick French names fredonner to hum les freins brakes Driving frÃ ªle (adj) - flimsy, fragile, frail frÃ ©mir to quake, tremble, shudder, shiver un frÃ ¨re brother Family friand de (adj) - partial to, fond of le fric (fam) - cash, bread, lolly le frigo (inf) - fridge (short for rÃ ©frigÃ ©rateur) Apocopes frileux (adj) - sensitive to cold; (econ) - overcautious, nervous une friperie used/second-hand clothing store un frisson shiver, shudder, thrill les frites (f) fries Food froid (adj) - cold, unfriendly Weather,Personality froisser to crumple, offend frÃ ´ler to brush against, skim, verge on le fromage cheese Dairy le fromage blanc cream cheese Dairy se frotter to rub (one another), to fight; (slang) - to have sex le fruit fruit Fruit fugace (adj) - fleeting, transient fuguer (inf) - to run away, run off fuir to flee, avoid, fly off, shun, shirk fulgurant (figurative adj) lightning, dazzling, blinding, searing futÃ © (adj) - wily, crafty, cunning, sly