Sunday, May 24, 2020
Death Funeral customs vary according to the religion, culture, and ethnicity. Religion is the foremost thing that plays an important role in a funeral event. From a cultural perspective when a person dies they must be buried with two weeks in the Nigerian culture. This is because it allows the family to heal faster and get over their loved one and also move into the next chapter. Well, here I am going to describe my experience and observation of attending a funeral of my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt. Well, here I am going to describe my experience and observation of attending a funeral of my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt.Ã¢â¬ I saw the obituaries in the newspaper. In addition, I heard about the death from another friend that is the mutual friend of me and my friend whose aunt had died. I did not receive a proper invitation letter for that funeral, and the cemetery was far away from my house. I live in Renton and the funeral was in Bremerton but attended the funeral anyway. I really wanted to cons ole my friend and let her know that she was not alone in this critical time. Funeral in my Nigerian culture is highly valued to the point that everyone would be there whether invited or not. It is perceived as a way to pay their last respect to the dead. The funeral ceremony was on a Saturday morning at 10am. I saw a graveyard by the side of the road, and other families were also present paying a visit to their deceased loved ones with flowers and some other families were cleaning theShow MoreRelatedThe Oldest Jest by Jennifer Johnston1010 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesboth bringing aspect of their personal lives into the novels to be a type of biographical perspective of 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s Ireland. OÃ¢â¬â¢FaolÃ ¡in makes the distinction between Johnston and Keane with the following Ã¢â¬Å"[a]lthough Jennifer Johnston is not a daughter of the Big House, in the sense that Molly Keane maybe thus classified, she is closely linked to this world through family connections, friends, and personal tastesÃ¢â¬ (Mortimer 209). Yet each takes a different route to orient the reader to the realism ofRead MoreSociology Essay20437 Words Ã |Ã 82 Pagessources (internet and the mass media) to read and research as widely as possible in order to deepen your understanding. AS Sociology Introduction Ã © Nelson Thornes Distance Learning 2010 xxxiii What do I need to do to be successful on my sociology course? Before you start the course you should understand appropriate general study skills required for distance learning and supported self-study via videoconferenced weekly tutorials: You need to be self-motivated and organised in yourRead MoreThe Ballad of the Sad Cafe46714 Words Ã |Ã 187 PagesThe Ballad of the Sad CafÃ © and Other Stories by Carson McCullers Back Cover: When she was only twenty-three her first novel, The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter, created a literary sensation. She is very special, one of America s superlative writers who conjures up a vision of existence as terrible as it is real, who takes us on shattering voyages into the depths of the spiritual isolation that underlies the human condition. A grotesque human triangle in a primitive Southern town. . . A youngRead More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words Ã |Ã 190 PagesBUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 APPLICATION SECOND EDITION E S S AY S APPLICATION BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 ECSNS A IYI O N S SE O D ED T With Analysis by the Staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School Newspaper ST. MARTINÃ¢â¬â¢S GRIFFIN NEW YORK 65 SUCCESSFUL HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL APPLICATION ESSAYS, SECOND EDITION. Copyright Ã © 2009 byThe Harbus News Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of AmericaRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words Ã |Ã 518 Pagessuch as the names of fishes, which were not in the first edition. Other words were added or revised from other sources, but in order to keep the size within manageable limits not all possible sources have been exploited. I am particularly grateful to my reviewers, who pointed out some of the glaring errors; I hope they will find this edition at least slightly less faulty. I am very grateful to Dr (now Professor) E.N. EmenanjÃ¡ » , Mr (now Dr) P.A. Anagbogu, and to Miss Helen Joe Okeke and Miss Ifeoma OkoyeRead MoreComparison Between Japan and Russia13811 Words Ã |Ã 56 PagesNihon-koku/Nippon-koku local short form: Nihon/Nippon Capital: name: Tokyo geographic coordinates: 35 41 N, 139 45 E time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) National anthem: name: Kimigayo (The Emperors Reign) lyrics/music: unknown/Hiromori HAYASHI note: adopted 1999; in use as unofficial national anthem since 1883; oldest anthem lyrics in the world, dating to the 10th century or earlier; there is some opposition to the anthem because of its associationRead MoreEssay on Fall of Asclepius95354 Words Ã |Ã 382 Pageshumanity. If you said to me a year before the outbreak that this would happen, I would send you to a mental asylum. I guess the joke is on me, so to speak. I wasnt, what some would say, a confident person. I would just follow others and just do my job. The outbreak changed all that. It changed everyone, especially me. Some people got stronger due to the outbreak. Some became weaker. Being leader of the survivors? This idea would be absurd to me before the outbreak. I never wanted to be a leaderRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagesleading to truth-valued conclusions but with making choices, assessing reasons, seeking advice, etc. Dowden gets the balance and the emphasis right. Norman Swartz, Simon Fraser University v Acknowledgments For the 1993 edition: The following friends and colleagues deserve thanks for their help and encouragement with this project: Clifford Anderson, Hellan Roth Dowden, Louise Dowden, Robert Foreman, Richard Gould, Kenneth King, Marjorie Lee, Elizabeth Perry, Heidi Wackerli, Perry Weddle, Tiffany
Sunday, May 17, 2020
To function effectively in todays society people must communicate with one another. Yet for some individuals communication experiences are so unrewarding that they either consciously or unconsciously avoid situations where communication is required. (McCroskey Richmond, 1979) The term Ãâcommunication apprehension was coined by James McCroskey (1976a) and is defined as an individuals level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons (McCroskey, 1984). In the last two decades communication apprehension and related constructs, such as reticence and unwillingness to communicate, have received extensive research and theoretical attention by scholars in communication andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Causes of Situational CA. While many different elements have been forwarded as causes of situational CA some of the main ones are novelty, formality, subordinate status, conspicuousness, unfamiliarity, dissimilarity, the degree of attention from others, evaluation and prior history (McCroskey, 1984). When an individual is presented with a novel situation (ie: one that is unfamiliar or occurs infrequently such as an interview) concerns such as how to behave can result in anxiety. Formal situations tend to be more restrictive with more rigid behaviour rules and CA increases because of the narrower confines. Similarly, CA can result when a person is in a subordinate position because the person with the higher status defines the boundaries of acceptable behaviour. Generally, the more conspicuous a person feels, or the more unfamiliar the situation, the more CA is likely to be experienced. Likewise people often feel less apprehensive with others who are most like themselves. Sometimes, however, an individual will be more apprehensive with similar peers because they become more concerned with how they will be evaluated by them and the feeling of being evaluated in any situation often leads to anxie ty. Studies have shown that the majority of people are most comfortable with a moderate degree of attention. (McCroskey, 1984) When individuals are ignored or stared at the level of CA often rises. The level of CA alsoShow MoreRelatedInterpersonal Communication753 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTitle StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name COM200: Interpersonal Communication InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name Date (Sample March 19, 2014) Introduction- Thesis Statement * If youÃ¢â¬â¢re having difficulties writing a thesis, use the thesis generator in the Ashford Writing Center - https://awc.ashford.edu/writing-tools-thesis-generator.html. Remember, a thesis should make a claim Ã¢â¬â a definitive statement Ã¢â¬â about some issue. Here is an example: Effective communication is the most important factor in a successful relationshipRead MoreInterpersonal Communication Essay952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI. Introduction AND Thesis Statement Interpersonal communication is key to the life of a healthy relationship or marriage. Without communicating relationships and marriage will end failing. One of the biggest challenges with interpersonal communication lies in our ability to share our thoughts and concerns, conducted by feelings, desires, goals and needs, with another person 1) Explain the principles of and barriers to effective interpersonal communications. (You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to list the objectivesRead MoreInterpersonal Communication And The Self1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout this semester in communications I have learned a lot about myself, how to deal with others, relationships, and more. There were some lessons that stood out to me the most, and that I thought about after class. The first was in chapter 3 about interpersonal communication and the self. During this chapter, we took a piece of paper and put four people that we knew down. We chose someone who we were just getting to know, and then others that we knew very well or that were very close to usRead MoreInterpersonal Communication1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInterpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication is defined by Michael Cody as: the exchange of symbols used to achieve interpersonal goals(28). Does this definition include everything, or does it only include certain things?. When we are dealing with the issue of interpersonal communication we must realize that people view it differently. In this paper I will develop my own idea or definition of what interpersonal communication is. I will then proceed to identify any important assumptionsRead MoreInterpersonal Communication2332 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAbstract Interpersonal communication is a form of communication involving people who are dependent upon each other and with a common history. There are various aspects of interpersonal communication that can be discussed. This paper looks at the principles of interpersonal communication, its barriers and relationship with emotional intelligence. Four principles are identified, which are: interpersonal communication is inescapable; interpersonal communication is irreversible; interpersonal communicationRead MoreInterpersonal Communication Elements2395 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesInterpersonal communication is cyclic in nature. The message I sent and then feedback is given to complete the communication cycle. As it is on going hence the relationship that is impersonal at the beginning turns into interpersonal where one person is at times the sender and at other times the receiver. A. Source [sender] Ã¢â¬â Receiver:Ã Interpersonal communication involves at least 2 individuals. Each person formulates and sends message [sender activity] and at the same time receives and comprehendsRead MoreInterpersonal Communication And The Workplace946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInterpersonal communication in the workplace is developed positively or negatively on the individual relationships we have combined with our human behaviors and human actions within each of those relationships. There are many things that can affect interpersonal communications within the workplace, from generational that create technological gaps, to diversity and tolerance it creates, and finally the type of workplace, is it a team environment encouraging inclusiveness within the organization orRead MoreInterpersonal Communication Skill Of Feedback983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe interpersonal communication skill of feedback is essential for hospital nurses to give a suitable care to each patient because it enables the nurses to learn, and improve their motivation, performance and efficiency that assist to achieve their goal which is to help the patients heal. The interpersonal communication skill of feedback is a system of conveying information between two people regarding the receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s performance (Baker et al. 2013). In general, feedback is employed to deliver informationRead MoreInterpersonal Communication1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages | | | |Interpersonal Communication | | Read MoreThe Effects Of Interpersonal Competence On Interpersonal Communication1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Interpersonal competence is an aspect of communication that is rarely given attention despite being a crucial facet of human interaction. In fact, Beebe et al. argue that it is comparable to breathing for being do critical to human growth (2). According to Beebe et al., this aspect of communication is necessary to maintain relationships and to improve affairs between lovers (6-7). To enhance our competence in interpersonal communication, we need to learn and master ways of verbally relating
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Playing daddy all the time can be a tiresome task. Dads sometimes feel ignored, unappreciated, and even unwanted in their own family. When that happens, it is time for some words of inspiration. Inspirational dad quotes will pep up any sagging spirit. Dad Quotes for Inspiration Harry S. Truman I have found the best way to give advice to your children is to find out what they want and then advise them to do it. Lydia M. Child Blessed indeed is the man who hears many gentle voices call him father! Kent Nerburn It is much easier to become a father than to be one. Euripides Noble fathers have noble children. Richard Henry Dana Better to be driven out from among men than to be disliked of children. Douglas MacArthur By profession, I am a soldier and take pride in that fact. But I am prouder Ã¢â¬â infinitely prouder Ã¢â¬â to be a father. A soldier destroys in order to build; the father only builds, never destroys. The one has the potentiality of death; the other embodies creation and life. And while the hordes of death are mighty, the battalions of life are mightier still. It is my hope that my son, when I am gone, will remember me not from the battlefield but in the home repeating with him our simple daily prayer, Our Father who art in Heaven. Anonymous One night a father overheard his son pray Dear God, Make me the kind of man my Daddy is. Later that night, the Father prayed Dear God, Make me the kind of man my son wants me to be. Croesus In peace, the sons bury their fathers, but in war, the fathers bury their sons. Sir Stephen Spender When a child, my dreams rode on your wishes, I was your son, high on your horse, my mind a top whipped by the lashes of your rhetoric, windy of course. Chinese Proverb If a son is uneducated, his dad is to blame. Jan Hutchins When I was a kid, my father told me every day, Youre the most wonderful boy in the world, and you can do anything you want to.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Introduction: The Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing strategyÃ¢â¬ report is about exploring an existing product. Though the submission of such a plan is a part and parcel of our course fulfillment criteria, we believe that such a report is very applicable in our learning process, and has helped us open our views about the business world of Bangladesh. 1.1 Objective of the Report: 1.1.1 General Objective: The general objective of our report is to discuss the marketing strategies of RC Beverage. We have focused on different steps of marketing steps of different sectors. 1.1.2 Specific objective: To explore different terms of marketing Analyze market segmentation of RC Beverage To find out how they have targeted their market ExploringÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Now they proudly profess that they have stuck to their mission and are now worth over 80 crore Tk. 3. Current Market Situation: The competition is very much high in soft drink industry. RC Beverage is operating in a oligopoly market where two or three large competitors control the lion share of that market. The market size of soft drinks in Bangladesh is around TK.800 Crore per year. Among all soft drinks company, Coca-Cola is the market leader for many years. It was popular in the past time and still it has popularity among the large population of Bangladesh. It obtains 31% market share. After Coca-Cola, Pepsi was the second one; but after emerging RC, the market share of Pepsi has been reduced to 22%. RC has been able to move its way up and for the last two years it has been holding the 2nd position with 26% of the total market. The others like Uro Cola, Virgin and Suncrest each have market shares equal to or below 10%. There is another player Mojo who are taking a good number of market share in the beverage market. The major difference of RC with the other brands is that this company offers their product at different sizes and they have 6 flavors in their product. Other companies donÃ¢â¬â¢t have this large range of product like RC Beverage. RC Beverage also has very strong distribution network. These things are the competitive advantage of RC Beverage over theShow MoreRelatedRc Cola Marketing Plan4963 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesMARKETING PLAN OUTLINE I. Executive Summary. A one-to-three-page synopsis of the plan providing highlights of the current situation, objectives, strategies, principal actions programs, and financial expectations. II. Situation Analysis A. Category/competitor definition PHILIPPINE FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY Philippines have emerged as one of the rapidly growing food and drinks industries in the Asian region over the recent past. The country is characterizedRead MoreRe Launch of Rc Cola4740 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesÃ Ã Ã Ã Re Launch: RC Cola Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ASSIGNMENT #2 SUBMITTED TO SIR MANSOR MAHMOOD AASHIQ SALES MANAGEMENT BATCH: F10 (BBIT) GROUP: Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ REPRESENTATORS NAMES: ROLL NO: 1. ALI SULEMAN F10BA056 2. HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ZULQARNAIN F10BA155 3. UMER BILAL F10BA064 4. AURANGZAIB F10BB042 5. ABEEHA MAHMOOD F10BB038 6. MARYAM TARIQ F10BB113 7. RUBAB BASHIR F10BB155 8. HIRA NAJEEB F09B101 Read MoreBangladesh Beverage Industry6881 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pages 1. Abdul Monem Limited (Coca-Cola, Sprite, Fanta) 2. Agriculture Marketing Company Limited (Pran) 3. Akij Group (Mojo, Lemu, Frutika) 4. Global Beverage Limited (Virgin) 5. Globe Soft Drinks Limited (Uro Cola, Uro Lemon) 6. Partex Beverage Limited (RC Cola, Lychena) 7. Transcom Beverage (Pepsi, 7up, Mirinda) Of these, Pran and Mojo are the only local brands. Coca-Cola, with its three varieties, namely, the cola-flavored Coca-Cola, the clear-flavored Sprite and theRead MoreMarketing Plan6327 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesEXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Coca-Cola Company will launch its improved product that will bring energy drinks into new heights. We created Coke 100, the very first soft drink that gives the same punch every energy boosters contain but still have the refreshing goodness every Coke-lover wants. We are preparing to serve our target market that comprises of teenagers, young adults, adults who belong to social classes of A, B, and C who need their daily dose of energy. Our objective is primarily to haveRead MoreHarvard Business Case Analysis: Coca-Cola in Brazil681 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Harvard Business Case Analysis Coca-Cola in Brazil Introduction Coca-Cola is sold in over 200 countries and had for years done very well in Brazil. A closer look at Coca-Colas Brazilian market is presented in an article in the Thunderbird (published by the Garvin School of International Management), which delves into the profit problems that Coca-Cola had in Brazil in the early part of the decade of the 2000s. The article, published in 2004, points out that the fast growth of off-brand softRead MoreMarket Plan of Pran Juice1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdo not take high price as other juices are taken in Bangladesh. We think that the price is quite reasonable to be succeeded. Weakness: * External threats: Too much competition from international organizations, for example Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, RC-Cola, Virgin Cola, Rasna (India), Shezan (Pakistan) etc. * Internal weaknesses: Large size of the business and workforce makes it difficult to manage perfectly. As a result it often causes internal conflict. Opportunity: * Potential customerRead MoreCase Analysis8274 Words Ã |Ã 34 Pageslong-term objectivesÃ 31 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã M. Action PlanÃ 32 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã N. Annual Objectives and PoliciesÃ 36 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã O. Procedures for strategy review and evaluationÃ 37 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã P. Balanced ScorecardÃ 38 BibliographyÃ 40 AppendicesÃ 41 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Part 1 Ã¢â¬â Case Research A.Company Profile Zest-O Corporation was established as a privately owned family corporation in May 1981 to engage in the manufacture and distributor of food products in the Philippines. Established as SEMEXCO MARKETING CORPORATION, the company adopted theRead MorePran Group Swot Analysis1955 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages7-8 years. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To become one of the biggest names in international fruit and vegetable processing industry Scope: The market of soft drinks and beverage is very competitive. We may say that as a strong market. This project paper is prepared as a marketing plan of a product of AMCL which brand name is PRAN. Methodology: To prepare this report, standard methods of report writing have been used. For writing this report different types of data were needed to complete, tabulate and analyze. The requiredRead MoreCase Analysis of Coca Cola Essay1834 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCase Analysis of Coca Cola 1. In the 1980s, under CEO Roberto Goizueta, Coca-Cola was a global brand with a growing presence in global-emerging markets like Europe, Russia, and South East Asia. It beat back its main rival Pepsi to be a leader in the carbonated beverage market with a 70% market share. During the 1990s however, under new CEO M. Douglas Ivester, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share started declining due to political (regulatory), economic, social (consumer), and technological (operations)Read MoreCoke Marketing Plan4596 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pages12 Marketing Objectives 13 Marketing Strategies 16 Selecting Target Market 17 Developing the Marketing Mix 18 Product Strategy 19 Pricing Strategy 20 Placing and Distribution 22 Promotion Strategy 23 Evaluation, Monitoring and Control 24 Monitoring and Controlling 26 Sales Analysis 27 Market Share Evaluation 27 Marketing Profitability Analysis 27 Market Research 27 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Giant soft drink company Coca-Cola has
Assignment Leadership and Employee Morale Dorothy Ã¢â¬Å"MickiÃ¢â¬ Gould Kaplan University Organizational Behavior MT302 Professor Rhonda Shannon May 09, 2012 Unit 8 Assignment Leadership and Employee Morale The ten truths, just learning them is not enough. It is crucial to good leadership to apply them. (Kouzes amp; Posner, 2010) * You make a difference. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership and Employee Morale or any similar topic only for you Order Now Believe in yourself. Believe you can make a difference. If you do not believe it, neither will anyone else. * Credibility is the foundation of leadership. Mean what you say and say what you mean. Do not be misleading; be honest and upfront about everything. * Values drive commitment. If you do not know what you stand for, find out. You need to know what you value. * Focusing on the future sets leaders apart. How can you lead if you do not know where you are going? What is the end goal; do not think you are the only person who sees it or that can get you there. * You cannot do it alone. Remember to lead you have to have followers; you cannot lead if you do not include other people in your plans and have a team. Trust rules. Trust and respect, you cannot get either one without giving it. * Challenge is the crucible of greatness. Do not be afraid of change. If it is not working, ask for suggestions and /or look for different ways to implement changes. Make the changes necessary to grow. * Either you lead by example, or you do not lead at all. Do not expect someone or anyone to do something you are not willing to do yourself. This also goes back to credibility. Do as I do not jus t, as I say. * The best leaders are the best learners. Strive to learn. Going back to challenges and changes, if it is not working, find a new way to do it. Also, remember you can learn from your followers and team members. * Leadership is an affair of the heart. Have passion in what you are doing, or you cannot lead your team members to want what is best. This is my favorite. My job has a saying: Have a Heart H = Help everyone you can E = Enjoy your job and your customers A = Always Ã¢â¬Å"be thereÃ¢â¬ for your co-workers and customers R = Respect everyone, especially the difficult people T = Truth is always the answer (Management, 2012) Ã¢â¬Å"All aspects of transformational leadershipÃ¢â¬âare leaders able to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-interest for the sake of the organization. Individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence all result in extra effort from workers, higher productivity, higher morale and satisfaction, higher organizational effectiveness, lower turnover, lower absenteeism, and greater organizational adaptability. (Judge amp; Robbins, 2007, p. 391) References Judge, T. A. , amp; Robbins, S. T. (2007). Organizational Behavior (14th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved March 22, 2012 Kouzes, J. , amp; Posner, B. (2010, August). Leadership Truths. Leadership Excellence, 27(8), 15. Retrieved May 11, 2012 Management, B. (2012). Employee Handbook. BMG Employee Handbook. Brundage Management. Retrieved May 12, 2012 How to cite Leadership and Employee Morale, Papers
Question: Describe about the Polymer for Polychlorotrifluoroethylene. Answer: History of polymer: Berthelot first used the term polymer in an article, which is published in the Bulletin of the Chemical Society of France. He described it as, styrolene (styrene), heated at 2000 during a few hours, transforms itself into a resinous polymer. Therefore, the first synthetic polymer was produced from styrolene. The polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PTFCE or PCTFE) was first discovered in 1934 by Otto Scherer and Fritz Schloffer in Germany (LaBarbera, 2014). This polymer is commercially available in the trade name of Kel-F 81by M W Kellogg Company. This trade name was derived from Kellogg andFluoropolymer. The other trade names are Neoflon, Aclon and Aclar. The polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) is prepared by the polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (monomer). Although, polychlorotrifluoroethylene still is commercially known as Kel-F, 3M stopped manufacturing Kel-FPCTFE in the year of 1995. The right of this polymer was sold to the Daikin who manufactures the same product under the bra nd name of NEOFLON PCTFE. The PCTFE is recognized as a crystalline polymer whose type of crystallinity and degree can be controlled by controlling its thermal history. Therefore, depending on the manufacturing conditions the properties of PCTFE can be changed. When PCTFE is molded with high crystalinity, it is found that PCTFE become dense and consists of high mechanical strength but low elongation. On the other hand, amorphous molded PCTFE consists of lower density and is more elastic as well as optically clear. It is also recognized that PCTFE objects, which are prepared by compression molding are found to be stronger than those objects that are prepared by injecting extrusion or molding. Origin, Structure and synthesis: Origin: Fritz Schloffer and Otto Scherer in Germany first discovered the polychlorotrifluoroethylene polymer in 1934. These scientists worked under IG Farben Company in Germany. However, after World War II M W Kellog Company (Millett et al., 2016) commercialized this polymer under the trade name of Kel-F 81 in 1950s. After 1957, the M W Kellogg company was taken by the 3M Company and they stopped producing polychlorotrifluoroethylene. However, polychlorotrifluoroethylene is now manufactured in different trade names such as Neoflon (from Dalkin), Aclon (Allied Signal) and Aclar (Allied signal). Apart from these other trade names of this product are Hostaflon C2, Voltale (Arkema), Fluon (ICI) and Plaskon (Allied Chemical Corporation). Structure: The polychlorotrifluoroethylene is formed by the polymerization of the chlorotrifluoroethylene. The molecular formula of the polychlorotrifluoroethylene is (C2CIF3)n. in this formula the n represents number of monomers (chlorotrifluoroethylene) in the polymer molecule (polychlorotrifluoroethylene). The monomer of the polychlorotrifluoroethylene consists of two carbons, three-fluorine and one-chlorine atoms (Wypych, 2016). Synthesis: The polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) is prepared from the emulsion or aqueous suspension of chlorotrifluoroethylene in the presence of polymerization catalyst, which is similar to teflon. The PCTFE can be prepared through simple free radical polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), since polychlorotrifluoroethylene is an addition homopolymer (Lopez et al., 2015). Emulsion polymerization is used to produce polychlorotrifluoroethylene, a polymer with high molecular weight. The reaction takes place within 0-400 C. The initiation of the reaction is carried out by the activation of redox systems by a metal salt (persulfate-bisulphit with a ferrous salt). Importance to society: The industry of PCTFE or polychlorotrifluoroethylene is considered as significant due to the contribution or use of the polychlorotrifluoroethylene in society. More than one type of products are produced from polychlorotrifluoroethylene and used in the society. According to Ebnesajjad (2014), it is found that to keep pace with the globalization the use of PCTFE is valuable. It is found that the production of the PCTFE can also have a direct impact on the economy of a country because of its demand in world market (Ebnesajjad, 2014). According to survey report it is established that North America still dominates the market of fluoropolymers especially PCTFE due to its demand in the United States. Today fluoropolymers especially PCTFE are used in the society in different forms and becomes a valuable part of the human life. The PCTFE is used hugely in medical sciences. Many types of equipment are built with this polymer due to its high tensile strength as well as good thermal characteris tics. On the other hand, PCTFE is also useful in ligament replacement, cardiovascular grafts as well as heart patches. In other words the use of PCTFE in medical science changed the lives of many people. Today people are using plugs, bearing, electrical insulation, wire and cables which are prepared with PCTFE. The melting temperature of PCTFE is too high (210- 2150 C), therefore, it is used in packaging and sealing. It is also hugely used in Barrier film and insulation (Firdaus et al., 2015). Therefore, it can be said that the use of PCTFE had change the lifestyle of the common people hugely. Advantages: Polychlorotrifluoroethylene has many advantages, which are listed below (Couture et al., 2015): They are completely transparent. They have high mechanical strength. They are resistant to stress-crack. Their low shrinkage property at low temperature provides excrement stability to make valve seats. They are excellent chemically resistant to all corrosive inorganic liquids. They have zero moisture absorption. They have excellent electrical properties, which are maintained in high humidity. They are also very stiff in nature. They are resistant to weather. They are physiologically inert. Their service temperature varies from -270C to 205C. Their Limiting Oxygen Index is 95 (the best of any plastic material). Disadvantages: polychlorotrifluoroethylene slightly swells into halocarbon compounds, like, aromatic solvents, esters and ethers. Though it is chemically resistant, still it is less than Polytetrafluoroethylene. There are other disadvantages. They have limited mechanical properties. Their cost is very high. They are very difficult to process. They are not decomposed easily. Their decomposition gives rise to toxic products (Ozaki et al., 2014). Uses: The use of PCTFE is versatile. The PCTFE could be used in different industries due to its specific as well as unique characteristics. The use of PCTFE in a versatile way (in industries) started in 1953. The melting temperature of PCTFE is 210- 2150 C and Tensile Modulus is 60-100 MPa, which makes it more flexible. Due to these properties the industries use this polymer in different way (LaBarbera, 2014). The PCTFE is used in different industries including automotive industries, Chemical industry, Electrical industry, architectural as well as in domestic industries, Medical industries even in engineering industries (Goff et al., 2015). In Automotive industries the PCTFE is used in the form of gaskets, shaft seals, power steering, O- rings and many other parts. In Chemical industries the PCTFE could be used in chemical resistance, weather stability and thermal property as coatings for heat exchange, autoclaves and all kind of reaction vessels. In architectural and domestic industries t he PCTFE is used to prepare water- repellent fabric, non- stick coatings for cookware, architectural fabric and fiber glass composition. Apart from this in medical industries, the PCTFE is also in various forms such as in ligament replacement, heart patches and cardiovascular grafts (Firdaus et al., 2015). Apart from these, the PCTFE can be used in different medical functions such as surface energy, mechanical property, and biological stability as well as in chemical stability. On the other hand, it is also found that the PCTFE can be used in flame retardancy, barrier film, and packaging and sealing. Environmental impact: The synthetic polymers have large impact on the environment. These are described below: Limitation of Food: The synthetic polymers give rise to environmental pollution. One of the common environmental pollution is 44 percent of the seabirds species are recognized to have ingested synthetic polymers. Mistakenly, those birds have used them as food. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, due to this ingestion, millions of birds are dying each year (Goff et al., 2015). The death of these shore birds gives rise to significant environmental problem, as these seabirds play a major role to maintain the ecological balance between the population sizes of crustaceans and fish. Secretion of POPs: POPs are known as persistent organic pollutants. They are certain toxins, which stay in the environment without any changes for years, for example, pesticides, like, toxaphene and DDT. The researchers of the University of the Pacific had conducted one research. In that research, they found the synthetic polymers in the sample, collected from the coastal sites of the northern Pacific Ocean (Comiskey Jacobson, 2013). After research, Harmful toxins are found in that synthetic polymer sample. These synthetic polymers continuously give rise to hazardous chemicals into wildlife and chemicals. It not only misbalances the ocean life but also the human life is misbalanced, when the humans ingest these fishes. Production Pollution: These synthetic polymers are not only polluting the oceans but also environmental problems arise due to the production process. According to the Environmental Working Group organization, DuPont chemical company has exposed contaminants into local watersheds during Teflon production for decades. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states that these chemicals are accumulated in the fish gills, which are affecting high quantities in the food chain (Soper et at., 2013). Accumulation of Ladfill: The presence of synthetic polymers is not affecting water and oceans by their productions, but these polymers are also polluting the lands. These polymers will be disposed in landfills. Without any changes, they will stay for centuries. As the time will be passed away, toxins will be released from these into the soil. Clean Air Council organization has stated that each year, only Americans use almost 102.1 billion plastic bags, which are synthetic polymer (LaBarbera, 2014). Among these bags, less than one percent can be recycled. These synthetic polymers not only dispose hazardous chemicals to the soil, but also their and non-biodegradability and longevity properties give rise to constant landfills as the use of these polymers grows and continues. References: Comiskey, B., Jacobson, J. M. (2013).U.S. Patent Application No. 14/088,552. Couture, G., Ladmiral, V., Amduri, B. (2015). Methods to prepare quaternary ammonium groups-containing alternating poly (chlorotrifluoroethylene-alt-vinyl ether) copolymers.RSC Advances,5(14), 10243-10253. Ebnesajjad, S. (2014).Fluoroplastics, Volume 1: Non-Melt Processible Fluoropolymers-The Definitive User's Guide and Data Book(Vol. 1). Elsevier. Firdaus, S., Srivastava, S., Ahmad, M., Ansari, S. U. I., Ali, P. (2015). Poly (chlorotrifluoroethylene): Normal Modes, Phonon Dispersion and Heat Capacity.International Journal,3(5), 1071-1077. Goff, M., Hazell, P. J., Appleby-Thomas, G. J., Wood, D. C., Stennett, C., Taylor, P. (2015). Gas gun ramp loading of Kel-F 81 targets using a ceramic graded areal density flyer system.International Journal of Impact Engineering,80, 152-161. LaBarbera, D. A. (2014).Microstructural Modeling of Hot Spot and Failure Mechanisms in RDX Energetic Aggregates. North Carolina State University. Lopez, G., Gao, C., Li, L., Wyzgoski, F. J., Thenappan, A., Rinaldi, P. L., Ameduri, B. (2015). Synthesis and microstructural characterization of poly (chlorotrifluoroethylene-co-vinylidene chloride) copolymers.Polymer Chemistry,6(20), 3790-3799. Mann, C. A., Marsh, D. G., Hamilton, R. T., Miller, C. E., Shah, H. (2014).U.S. Patent No. 8,715,463. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Millett, J. C., Lowe, M. R., Appleby-Thomas, G., Roberts, A. (2016). The Mechanical and Optical Response of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene to One-Dimensional Shock Loading.Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A,47(2), 697-705. Ozaki, H., Kawasaki, K., Higuchi, T., Araki, T. (2014).U.S. Patent Application No. 14/332,151. Soper, A. K., Page, K., Llobet, A. (2013). Empirical potential structure refinement of semi-crystalline polymer systems: polytetrafluoroethylene and polychlorotrifluoroethylene.Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter,25(45), 454219. Wypych, G. (2016).Handbook of polymers. Elsevier.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: 1. What breaches of the Migration Act and Migration Agents Code of Conduct would Ahmet Xerxes have committed in his handling of Razs case? 2. What does the 8503 visa condition mean? 3. Can Raz and Esther make another application for a visa in Australia? 4 Are they subject to section 48 of the Migration Act? 5. Prepare a submission to the Minister for Immigration and Border Protection seeking a waiver of the 8503 condition so that Raz and Esther can make a valid application for the Contributory Aged Parent visa without having to leave Australia? Answers: 1. The Migration Act provides that the migration agents in Australia are required to be registered with the office of MARA for the purpose of providing migration assistance. Therefore the law provides that the migration agents should meet the competence standards and they should also follow the Code of Conduct and at the same time, they should keep their knowledge regarding the migration law and procedure up to date. The Code of Conduct provides the professional and ethical standards that have to be followed by the migration agents in Australia. Legal force has been provided to the Code by Migration Agent Regulations. In the present case, the migration agent of Raz and Esther, Ahmet Xerxes had made a promise that on the basis of the situation, they will certainly succeed in the application. Similarly the migration agent has charged a fee of $20,000. But after one month of making the application, they were informed by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection that their application was not valid because apart from other things, condition 8503 has been attached to their visas. When they asked Ahmet to refund their fee of $20,000, he refused to return the amount would and he also made a thread that he has some powerful friends who can create problems for their daughter Yasmin and her family. This amounts to a breach of the Code of Conduct by Ahmet. The reason is that the Code requires that under all circumstances, it is necessary that a registered migration agent should act according to the law and to protect the legitimate interests of the clients. It is also required that the agent should deal fairly, competently and diligently. Therefore if a client has asked the registered migration agent regarding his or her opinion about the chances of having a successful outcome for the application made by the client, the agent should not mention unjustified or unsubstantiated prospects of success of the application when giving advice to the clients regarding the application made under the Migration Act. The Code of Conduct also provides that the registered migration agency should not coerce or intimidate any person for their personal benefit. As a result, the Code provides that the registered migration agent should not be involved in an instance of physical threats, undue pressure, threats to the family members staying in Australia are overseas, untruthful claims regarding departmental sanctions or demand relation of ethnic or cultural anxieties. Regarding the fee that can be charged by the registered migration agents, no statutory scale has been provided by the law. But in this regard it needs to be noted that the fee charged by the registered migration agent should be reasonable under the circumstances of the case. On these grounds, it is clear that in the present case, there has been a breach of the above-mentioned provisions of the Migration Act as well as the Code of Conduct prescribed for the registered migration agents in Australia. 2. The meaning of condition 8503 can be explained by the effect of this provision on certain visas. Hence if the authorities have imposed condition 8503 on the visa granted to a person, it means that such person cannot apply for another visa (except the protection visa or for a temporary visa of a particular type) to extend the stay by such person is in Australia. When such person has departed from Australia, condition 8503 does not prevent such a person from making an application for other visas. Condition 8503 can be imposed on several visitors and temporary residence visas. But in case of the below mentioned visas, condition 8503 is a mandatory. These are (1) visitor visa (subclass 600) for these streams; sponsored family stream, tourist stream for the applicants who have sponsorship imposed and approved destination status scheme operating from China; (2) training and research visa (subclass 402) and (3) work and holiday visa (subclass 462). 3. In this regard, the law provides that if the last visa that was held by the person since coming to Australia has expired, such a person will not be able to apply for another visa in Australia (although there are certain exceptions) unless the person has requested and the authorities had granted a waiver of condition 8503 that has been imposed on the visa of such a person. Hence in the present case, Raz and Esther cannot make another application for a visa in Australia unless condition 8.03 that has been imposed on the visa, has been waived by the authorities. 4. The bar imposed by section 48 is applicable only when the applicant has been refused or cancelled the visa since the last entry of the applicant to Australia and at present, the applicant does not have a substantial visa and the applicant is still in Australia. It needs to be mentioned that section for it is not applicable in case of the offshore applicants. However in the present case, as the above-mentioned requirements are satisfied, section 48 will be applicable to Raz and Esther. 5. Dear Sir/Madam, RE: VISA CONDITION 8503 NO FURTHER STAY, WAIVER REQUEST APPLICANT: Raz El Ghoul and Esther DATE OF BIRTH: VISA DETAILS: PASSPORT DETAILS: DATE OF ARRIVAL: We advise that be acting on behalf of the applicants, Raz El Ghoul and Esther who want to make this application for the waiver of condition 8503 that has been imposed on them visitor subclass 600 visa. Background: The applicant, Raz El Ghoul is a citizen of Iran and a 65 years of age. He, along with his wife Esther, aged 60 years had obtained a visitor visa (Class FA, subclass 600) in Tourist Stream for the purpose of visiting their daughter, YAsmil who lives in Australia and who had recently given birth to a baby. The visas of the applicants were valid for a stay of six months and conditions 8101, 8201 and 8503 has been imposed on them. During this time, Ali, the husband of Yasmin who had been working as a long-haul truck driver, met with an accident on the Hume Freeway. The semi-trailer of Ali was carrying high octane aviation fuel and after the accident, it is adapted into flames and Ali and his co-driver lost their lives in the accident. Yasmin was already struggling with her baby who was born with congenital heart defect and after the accident, she became more distraught and depends on her parents for continual support not only to cope with the tragic loss of her husband but a lso for managing the daily life which includes raising her baby in these adverse conditions. Application: We submit that as per Regulation 2.05(4), in view of the reasons mentioned below, compelling and compassionate circumstances have developed after the grant of the visa to the applicants. Moreover the applicants have no control over the circumstances and it has caused a major change in the applicants' circumstances. Subsection 41(2A) of the Migration Act provides that the circumstances under which the condition may be waived should be of the kind that have been mentioned in 41(2)(a). These require that (a) compelling and compassionate circumstances should have developed after the grant of visa with the condition (i) and the person had no control on the circumstances and (ii) it may have caused a major change in the circumstances of the applicant; (b) if the Minister had previously declined the waiver of the condition, the Minister should be satisfied that the circumstances are significantly different from the circumstances that were considered earlier; and (c) the request made to the Minister for the waiver of the condition should be in writing. If condition 8503 has been imposed on a visa, the person to whom the visa was granted, is prohibited from applying for another visa, apart from a temporary visa or a protection visa, for extending the stay of the person while such person remains in Australia. On the other hand, after the person has left Australia, such a person is not prevented from making an application on another visa as a result of condition 8503. Hence, in view of condition 8503, the Department of immigration can grant more visas where additional security may be needed that the applicant for the visa will leave Australia after the expiry of the period of stay granted by the visa. In this regard, condition 8503 has mainly been successful in escalating the number of returns of these persons. In the same way, as a result of this condition, there has been a decline in the number of persons who may make efforts for remaining in Australia after the period of stay granted by the visa has expired. In this case, Raz El Ghoul and Esther want to stay in Australia because their daughter, Yasmin had given birth to a child and soon she lost her husband in an accident. The child has a congenital heart defect. Under these circumstances, at present, Yasmin is not only emotionally dependent on her parents but she also relies on them for her daily routine and taking care of a child. The request for waving condition 8503 imposed on a visa cannot be decided by the authorities on the spot because it needs careful consideration. As required by the law, the application for the waiver of condition 8503 has been made in writing. Although, there is no official form that needs to be used for making an application for waving the condition 8503. Request: As a result of the actual circumstances of the applicants, Raz El Ghoul and his wife Esther, the problems faced by their daughter Yasmin in raising her child, it is requested that condition 8503 that has been imposed on the visitor visa granted to the applicants should be waived so that the applicants may remain in Australia for the kind that is necessary to take care of their daughter and her child. Bibliography Briskman, Linda, Deborah Zion, and BebeLoff. "Challenge and collusion: health professionals and immigration detention in Australia."The International Journal of Human Rights14.7 (2010): 1092 Castles, Stephen. "Understanding global migration: A social transformation perspectiveJournal of ethnic andmigration studies36.10 (2010): 1565-1586 Crock, Mary, and Kate Bones, "Australian exceptionalism: Temporary protection and the rights of refugees."Melb. J. Int'l L.16 (2015): 522 Legislation Migration Act, 1958 Migration Regulations, 1994 Migration Act, 1958 Briskman, Linda, Deborah Zion, and BebeLoff. "Challenge and collusion: health professionals and immigration detention in Australia."The International Journal of Human Rights14.7 (2010): 1092 Migration regulations, 1994 Crock, Mary, and Kate Bones, "Australian exceptionalism: Temporary protection and the rights of refugees."Melb. J. Int'l L.16 (2015): 522 Castles, Stephen. "Understanding global migration: A social transformation perspectiveJournal of ethnic and migration studies36.10 (2010): 1565-1586 Kritz, Mary M.International migration, John Wiley Sons, Ltd, 2011